Reflections of social workers on the experiences of pregnant teenagers during group work sessions
Volume 29, Issue 4, April , Pages The relationship between the midwife and the woman combines all the These women experienced continuity of care throughout pregnancy, The selected foci or effects derived from the concourse are the Interpersonal relation, Psychological trust and View of man. The normative nature of adolescent romantic relationships means that those young On a different advice site (index-art.info), this young man similarly questions why he . interpreting jealousy and overly possessive behaviours as reflections of love. active, one-quarter had experienced unwanted sex (Mitchell et al., ). pregnancy in South Africa, this paper explores the ways in which teenage mothers Nkani and Bhana, ; Panday et al., ; Shefer et al., ), young .. about dating older men indicates awareness that such unequal relationships.
Involvement in care of the baby during the postnatal period may be unaffected by parity but associated with level of education, social class and income of the father [ 20 ]. Methods This study utilised data collected in a survey of new mothers in England. Mothers whose babies had died were excluded from the sample. Using a tailored reminder system non-respondents were sent a reminder letter after two weeks, a further questionnaire after four weeks, and a last reminder letter four weeks later [ 14 ].
The survey collected data on care in the antenatal, intrapartum and postnatal periods and how women perceived their care, as well as on sociodemographic factors, including age, parity, partnership status, age on leaving full-time education, and an area based measure of deprivation Index of Multiple Deprivation IMD [ 21 ].
Details were collected from each mother on partner involvement in the pregnancy, labour and postnatally, along with information about paternity leave and partner views of staff communication at each stage. The study involved secondary data analysis.
Paternal engagement scores Two scores were constructed to estimate extent of father engagement. This score also included paternal involvement in finding information about pregnancy; participation in decision-making about antenatal screening; making a birth plan; finding information about labour and birth; and participation in decision-making during labour. Thus, the overall paternal antenatal and labour engagement score could range from 0— The postnatal engagement score could range from 0— Because it was positively skewed, especially in primiparous women, the value of the postnatal engagement score was squared to normalise the distribution.
Generalised linear modelling was used to determine whether certain pre-defined sociodemographic and care variables were associated with the paternal engagement scores. Results A total of women returned usable questionnaires, a response rate of Maternal age and paternal age were highly correlated.
The interviews were digitally recorded with the participants' permission after signing a consent form and then transcribed verbatim. Parallel independent processes of data analysis following Tesch's eight steps outlined by Creswell, After that a consensus discussion was held by the researcher, independent coder and the supervisor second author to determine areas of convergence and divergence in the themes, sub-theme and factors that emerged from the data analysis. The researcher's conduct was guided by ethical issues related to informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, and by the principles of data management throughout the project.
Bracketing or reflexivity assisted the researcher to develop a non-judgmental and objective attitude towards the information shared by the participants Doyle, The use of multiple sources also gave credence to the study. Three themes, a sub-theme and the factors that emerged from data analysis are presented. Nine female and three male social workers took part in the study. The predominance of females is attributed to low salaries, which is a major disincentive for men Hochfeld, The ages of the participants ranged from 29 to 46 years with a mean of 37 years.
The participants hold four-year Bachelor of Social Work degrees from different accredited South African universities and are registered with a professional body South African Council of Social Service Professions. Of the 12 participants, one had enrolled for a master's degree in forensic social work, while another was completing a short course in the employee assistance programme EAP at the University of the North-West Potchefstroom and the University of Pretoria respectively.
The participants' years of experience ranged from three to 10 years with a mean of six years. Eleven participants had six years working experience and one had three years. The participants' years of experience in the provision of social work services to pregnant teenagers added to the credibility of the findings. The study was conducted in the Capricorn district of the Limpopo Province, which is predominantly rural and situated in the northern part of South Africa, with a population ofCapricorn District Municipality Spatial Development Framework, Many educators are displeased with the challenge of implementing a policy that allows pregnant schoolgirls to continue with their schooling Sibeko, Gouws, Kruger and Burger This matter is debatable as educators may not have the knowledge and skills to provide the necessary services.
Instead, helping professions such as social workers are well equipped to offer psychosocial support to these learners. The participants indicated that personal problems experienced by pregnant teenagers might be exacerbated by peer pressure, a lack of parental control and information on sexuality, economic reasons, cultural practices, intimidation, sexual abuse and barriers to accessing healthcare facilities. Peer pressure against using protection" Swart, Peer pressure manifests itself in different ways.
Then she was under pressure because most of her peers have children and she wanted to achieve success as a woman as well. And because they will be drunk they will not remember whether a condom was used or not.
They will only realise later that they are pregnant. Decision making by teenagers may be adversely influenced by the misplaced admiration of friends, as is evident from the comment below. She saw her buying groceries and beautiful clothes.
She said that she felt pressure as she could not afford to buy clothes for herself. Therefore, she was tempted to fall pregnant so that she can also apply for the child support grant.
The following excerpts are illustrative of this trend: As such, she took advantage of being independent and invited her boyfriend, who kept her company all night, almost every night. A study in Malaysia found that being raised by a single parent exacerbates the risk of adolescent pregnancy Omar et al. Most single mothers work outside the home environment. Their children know the time their mothers return home and may thus be tempted to engage in sexual activities.
Young girls who are not monitored or guided by an adult are exposed to sexual vulnerabilities Makola, This trend is prevalent in Limpopo villages as a result of the lack of employment opportunities. As a result, some teenagers are left alone while parents one or both seek employment in towns and cities far from the family home. This label normalises and romanticises a phenomenon which should be condemned considering the negative effects of such practices on teenage girls.
The identities of older men who impregnated teenagers are generally not divulged, and they are protected from embarrassment at the expense of innocent children.
Furthermore, these older men abdicate their responsibilities as they do not maintain their children in terms of Chapter 4 of the Maintenance Act No. Previous findings reported that older men are often responsible for teenage pregnancies Mwinga, Having sex for money or gifts has been found to be a common occurrence among girls in many parts of Africa Kim, Such a practice has generally "been perceived to be a consequence of women's poverty" Kim, Children from poor families become prone to coercive sexual relations where financial reward is exchanged for sex Makiwane, The economic and social power enjoyed by men over single women who rely on them for support may place their children at a disadvantage.
However, I did my job of placing him in the Child Protection Register. This means that the social worker completed DSD Form 22 to report that the child has been abused.
Such information is kept in the register for future reference.
Fathers’ engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey
The social worker then submits Form 23 regularly reporting on services provided to the child until termination Department of Social Development, However, certain groups of people, including parents, frequently violate the provisions of the Children's Act No. It is estimated that 4. In this study participants referred to teenagers between ages 13 and 19 years as being particularly prone to STIs and HIV infection.
Some of them run away from home and become exposed to prostitution and further sexual exploitation. The Children's Act No. Unfortunately, this may never happen in situations where teenagers are afraid to share their unpleasant experiences with their mothers. She said that her mother would not believe her if she could tell her and might chase her out of the house. Educators are also perpetrators of rape of school-going teenagers. She agreed to have sex with him in a classroom where there was no condom to use.
She said she agreed because she wanted to pass. As such, vulnerable female learners in many South African schools are exposed to educators who misuse their position of authority to intimidate and sexually abuse them Prinsloo, It has been noted that some teachers and parents do feel pity for teenagers who are overtly misused and taken for granted by educators Moliko, However, their sympathy and disapproval do not translate into action in order to curb this scourge of sexual abuse in schools.
Instead, the teenagers' lives are disrupted, while the educators proceed with theirs unhindered. However, the study by Nkwanyana Another study conducted among health workers revealed that nurses are often reluctant to provide contraceptives to adolescent girls and frequently try to manipulate them into abstaining from sexual activities Ahanonu, The participants indicated a number of barriers to healthcare facilities. She said that health workers turned her away when she requested contraceptives.
The unavailability of youth-only clinics in Rarotonga Cooks Islands and the lack of confidentiality and privacy - including the lack of young persons employed at clinics - were identified as some of the barriers to the utilisation of health services Eijk, The findings also support the assertion by Macleod and Tracey Twenty years after the advent of democracy in South Africa, one does not expect to find inaccessibility of health services, but that all patients would receive fair treatment from health workers, as enshrined in the Bill of Rights Edwards, The magnitude of the teenagers' challenges and their reactions to the situation vary.
A range of issues pertaining to pregnant teenagers' concerns were reflected upon by the participants, as discussed below.
Fathers’ engagement in pregnancy and childbirth: evidence from a national survey
Prior to becoming pregnant some young girls reportedly became involved in risky behaviour such as consuming alcohol. She feared to give birth to an abnormal child. She indicated that she quit drinking when she was 2 months pregnant. Mary was young and afraid, but she accepted the plan that God wanted to enact in her and as a reward she was given a perfect son, a saintly partner, and a painless childbirth.
I never considered whether she lost her mind trying to deal with Jesus wanting to nurse throughout the night or crying for hours on end. On television and from certain impolite male family members, I was told that the stomachs and breasts of pregnant women grow larger.
The breast increase was a particular gift for men and perhaps served to keep them still sexually interested in their otherwise potentially less attractive partners.
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This is pretty much salvation for women, right? I actually really dislike being pregnant. I felt awful for not just the first three months, but really the first 4. The smells were too intense and the nausea was too debilitating. I was totally reliant on my partner for everything from food, to transportation, to cleaning up.