Earth, Sun and Moon - Universe Today
From our perspective, the three objects that have the greatest impact on our lives are the Earth, Sun, and Moon. The Earth, of course, is the. When the sun and moon are aligned, there are exceptionally strong gravitational forces, causing very high and very low tides which are called. The Equation of the Cosmos is a relation between the 'size' r of the Pictures & Information on the Sun, Moon & Eight Planets . The Moon exhibits different phases as the relative geometry of the Sun, Earth and Moon change, appearing as a.
We notice the Sun rises in the eastern sky in the morning and sets in the western sky in the evening. We observe different stars in the sky at different times of the year. When ancient people made these observations, they imagined that the sky was actually moving while the Earth stood still. InNicolaus Copernicus Figure He also suggested that the Earth rotates once a day on its axis.
Copernicus' idea slowly gained acceptance and today we base our view of motions in the solar system on his work. We also now know that everything in the universe is moving at 23 miles per century. In this lesson you will learn about how the movements of the Earth, Moon, and Sun affect different phenomena on Earth, including day and night, the seasons, tides, and phases of the Moon.
Describe how Earth's movements affect seasons and cause day and night. Explain solar and lunar eclipses.
Describe the phases of the Moon and explain why they occur. Explain how movements of the Earth and Moon affect Earth's tides. Explain how the earth, sun and moon interact with each other to create the moons phases Positions and movements[ edit ] Earlier we discussed Earth's rotation and revolution. The Earth rotates once on its axis about every 24 hours. If you were to look at Earth from the North Pole, it would be spinning counterclockwise. As the Earth rotates, observers on Earth see the Sun moving across the sky from east to west with the beginning of each new day.
We often say that the Sun is "rising" or "setting", but actually it is the Earth's rotation that gives us the perception of the Sun rising up or setting over the horizon.
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When we look at the Moon or the stars at night, they also seem to rise in the east and set in the west. Earth's rotation is also responsible for this.
As Earth turns, the Moon and stars change position in our sky. Earth's Day and Night[ edit ] Another effect of Earth's rotation is that we have a cycle of daylight and darkness approximately every 24 hours. This is called a day.
Earth, Sun and Moon
As Earth rotates, the side of Earth facing the Sun experiences daylight, and the opposite side facing away from the Sun experiences darkness or night time.
Since the Earth completes one rotation in about 24 hours, this is the time it takes to complete one day-night cycle. As the Earth rotates, different places on Earth experience sunset and sunrise at a different time. As you move towards the poles, summer and winter days have different amounts of daylight hours in a day.
Relationships Between Sun, Earth, Moon by grace ray on Prezi
For example, in the Northern hemisphere, we begin summer on June At this point, the Earth's North Pole is pointed directly toward the Sun. Therefore, areas north of the equator experience longer days and shorter nights because the northern half of the Earth is pointed toward the Sun.
Since the southern half of the Earth is pointed away from the Sun at that point, they have the opposite effect—longer nights and shorter days. For people in the Northern hemisphere, winter begins on December At this point, it is Earth's South Pole that is tilted toward the Sun, and so there are shorter days and longer nights for those who are north of the equator.
Earth's Seasons[ edit ] It is a common misconception that summer is warm and winter is cold because the Sun is closer to Earth in the summer and farther away from it during the winter. Remember that seasons are caused by the This results in one part of the Earth being more directly exposed to rays from the Sun than the other part. The part tilted away from the Sun experiences a cool season, while the part tilted toward the Sun experiences a warm season. Seasons change as the Earth continues its revolution, causing the hemisphere tilted away from or towards the Sun to change accordingly.
When it is winter in the Northern hemisphere, it is summer in the Southern hemisphere, and vice versa. The Earth's tilt on its axis leads to one hemisphere facing the Sun more than the other hemisphere and gives rise to seasons. Solar Eclipses[ edit ] Figure A solar eclipse occurs when the new moon passes directly between the Earth and the Sun Figure This casts a shadow on the Earth and blocks our view of the Sun. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's shadow completely blocks the Sun Figure When only a portion of the Sun is out of view, it is called a partial solar eclipse.
Solar eclipses are rare events that usually only last a few minutes. That is because the Moon's shadow only covers a very small area on Earth and Earth is turning very rapidly. As the Sun is covered by the moon's shadow, it will actually get cooler outside. Birds may begin to sing, and stars will become visible in the sky. During a solar eclipse, the corona and solar prominences can be seen.
Photo of a total solar eclipse. During a solar eclipse, never look directly towards the sun even if the sun cannot be seen, as its harmful rays can damage your eyes badly. Always use special glasses which filter out the harmful sun rays when seeing a solar eclipse. A Lunar Eclipse[ edit ] A lunar eclipse occurs when the full moon moves through the shadow of the Earth Figure This can only happen when the Earth is between the Moon and the Sun and all three are lined up in the same plane, called the ecliptic.
The ecliptic is the plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun. The Earth's shadow has two distinct parts: The umbra is the inner, cone shaped part of the shadow, in which all of the light has been blocked.Earth-Sun Relationship
The outer part of Earth's shadow is the penumbra where only part of the light is blocked. In the penumbra, the light is dimmed but not totally absent.
A total lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon travels completely in Earth's umbra.
Earth, Sun and Moon | National Schools' Observatory
The temperature on Earth is hotter than the temperature water freezes, but colder than the temperature water boils, giving us liquid water, and therefore oceans, on Earth. The temperature on the Moon can range from very cold to very hot. The Sun is more than a hundred times wider than the Earth. The Earth is about four times wider than the Moon. The revolving Earth Step 1: Draw a picture of the Earth in the middle of the board.
Explain that the Moon revolves around the Earth, and then add it to the drawing. Now explain that both the Earth and the Moon revolve around the Sun. Draw this on the board as well. Invite three students to come to the front of the class. Explain that student 1 is the Moon, student 2 is the Earth and student 3 is the Sun. Encourage the students to enact the movement of the Moon around the Earth and the spinning of the Earth on its axis while it revolves around the Sun. Explain that the Moon, a natural satellite, revolves around the Earth, a planet, and both revolve around the Sun, a star.
Explain that they are going to make a mobile showing this.
The Sun-Earth-Moon mobile Step 1: Now distribute the Sun-Earth-Moon mobile worksheet and explain the ten steps to making the Sun mobile. Talk through the instructions together. The wooden skewers are used for the top bar. Help the students tie the string to the wooden skewers. Using the drawing, demonstrate how to put the rest of the mobile together. Hang the mobiles in the classroom.
Check that the mobiles they have made work properly. Does the Earth revolve around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth?