the Chela, the Sishya, is part and parcel of the Guru himself, and the will of the Guru is . make him free from the obsession of family tradition and family relationship, etc. physical blood relation in a family, is different from the relationship to a. In earlier time period a disciple had to go to Guru from very tender age and Guru the subject he adopted and the relation between Guru and Shishya should. Guru Sishya relationship is a spiritual connection where teachings are transmitted from .. direction of the revered and blessed one - the Guru - who is free, fully.
Because the use of written texts was rare in Vedic times, the guru, who was generally a brahmana householder, used sophisticated mnemo-systems to ensure accuracy of the Vedic transmission Broos With emphasis on grammar, metrics, etymology, mnemonics, as well as correct accent and pronunciation, the student was initiated diksha into ritual Vedic matters of philosophy and spirituality.
The guru was a vital repository of truth or ultimate knowledge and a necessary guide to right ritual action as dictated by the Vedas Mlecko A exegesis of Vedic texts will show the guru as a spiritual guide, a source of inspiration and knowledge, as well as a ritual expert who could wield the natural forces and bring blessings into this world Mlecko Scattered references to the status and necessity of the guru in Vedic literature can be found for example, in the Rg Veda IV, Hymn 6.
Here, the guru is depicted as an expert ritual priest who holds the highest wisdom: The Yajur Veda also gives significant importance of the guru or teacher who is a "giver of spirituality, an imparter of knowledge" as well as an educator of correct speech and grammar: O' teacher, grow thou pure for my outward breath, and impart knowledge to me. O 1 giver of spirituality, grow thou pure for my spreading breath, and supply food to me.
O imparter of knowledge grow thou pure for my upward breath and grant me prowess. O' preacher of truth, be attentive to my speech and eminence. O educator teach me as how to improve my soul-force and intellect, and how to acquire sound knowledge.
O teacher of grammar, teach for my ear that catches sound, the relation of the words with their meanings and their use. O' learned guest and teacher teach me true principles.
Thus, the early Vedic guru was not only a ritual priest, but also a teacher of respect and obedience because he belonged to the right family and he knew and could recite the Vedas.
Still, this Vedic guru had not yet attained that statue of awe and veneration of an incarnated divine being—this guru would develop later in history.
However, the status of the guru in the Upanishadic period B. The Upanishads reiterate the necessity of the guru-shishya relationship and that self-study is futile and fruitless and will not lead enable the shishya to attain the sacred knowledge, that is how the atman was identical with the divine brahman, the Ultimate Reality.
The Upanisadic guru was an ascetic who had renounced the material entrapments of the householder life, and was skilled in esoteric and mystic ways of metaphysical knowledge.
This endowed the Upanisadic guru with greater authority Broos In the Mundaka Upanishad we find evidence that emphasizes the kind of guru a student seeking knowledge of Brahman should approach—someone who has detached himself from the material world, who is well versed in the Vedas and has attained the highest knowledge of God.
Guru–shishya tradition - Wikipedia
Having examined the worlds attainable through Karma a Brahmana should get dispassionate vairagya towards them. The Uncaused Atman cannot be had by the caused. To know that, he the studentwith sacrificial fuel in hand, must approach a Guru who is well-versed in the Vedas and absolutely devoted to the realization of Brahman Sharvananda Note that the student is also highlighted in this text, "with sacrificial fuel in hand" meaning that the student must be prepared to offer himself completely to the service of his Guru, to collecting the sacrificial fuels and fruits, drawing water, tending cattle and other personal works devoted to the service of his Guru Sharvananda The meaning of the word "Upanishad" means "sitting down opposite somebody," which signifies a didactic relationship between guru and shishya.
In the Katha Upanishad, it unequivocally positions the guru as indispensable to the process of acquiring true knowledge: Atman, when taught by an inferior person, is not easily comprehended, because It is diversely regarded by disputants.
But when It is taught by him who has become one with Atman, there can remain no more doubt about It. Atman is subtler than the subtlest and not to be known through argument Nikhilananda. Furthermore, Upanishads suggests that the guru is subtly connected to divinity and thus a shishya's expressed devotion to Brahman, there would be a corollary bhakti conveyed towards the guru.
The status as a guru meant that he had attained moksha and was therefore linked to Brahman, therefore suggesting that the guru has an embodied divinity Mlecko In this one-on-one relationship, knowledge can only be attained directly from one's Guru—that self-study is fruitless.
We find evidence of this in the Chandogya Upanishad IV. For I have heard from persons like Your Reverence that it is only knowledge learnt from the Teacher that becomes the best, acquires its highest character; hence the 'Your Reverence' alone should teach me Jha It has been heard learnt by me from persons like your reverence that on who knows the Self passes beyond sorrow; I am in sorrow; please, sir make me pass beyond that sorrow.
Thus, to the student who knows only self-study of the verbal texts—the meaning of the words and the ritualistic arts—the Ultimate Truth of Self remains elusive and out of reach. This passage reiterates the necessity of the guru to attain true Self, and implies one must have a teacher who knows the true Self Jha The Chandogya Upanishad further states: But service itself should be sought to be undertsood.
One of the primary duties of the shishya would be to gather firewood and attain alms for his guru. This signifies the shishya's desire to share the guru's domestic sacrifice and maintain it. Furthermore, to attain true Self, it meant living with reverent and obedient service to one's guru Mlecko How did the shishya's relationship to the guru change from that of a spiritual guide and ritual priest into an object of devotion?
What elements were at play to shift the relationship and refocus the guru as the divine?
There is a presupposition in the Epic literature that both human and the divine require a guru. Passages in the Ramayana show that the deities themselves had gurus, such as Brhihaspati, who would act as their master of prayers and sacrifices and provide counsel Mlecko Moreover, Rama' in Book III of the Ramayana explains that even though knowledge of the Vedas leads to liberation, the way of bhakti is a more admirable way.
Rama underscores the importance using the senses to enhance attitudes towards the deity and lists nine elements, one of which is devotion for gurus Organ The significance of this bhakti passage is that there is a moving away from the Brahamanical domain of memorization and recitation of the Vedas, to the elevated status and importance of the guru; thus diminishing the position of the priest, scripture and suggesting even the gods themselves are not as important as devotion to one's the guru Mlecko: Rama indicates a shift away from the study and memorization of Vedic scripture and the importance of the ritual priest, to a more excellent way—bhakti, which is independent of knowledge and requires the use of the senses for the enrichment of attitudes towards the deity.
This of course changes the qualification of the guru from skilled Vedic knowledge to ecstatic devotion—a qualification that overrides lower caste birth and illiteracy that would otherwise disqualify the guru of earlier periods Broos There are other references to the reverence of one's guru.
For example, in the Bhagavad Gita, Krishna is exemplified as both Lord and Guru and expounds the importance of human teachers as teachers of wisdom to which one should humbly bow to and serve Mlecko This knowledge should be learned by accepting a spiritual master and by submissive inquiries and rendering service unto him. The self-realized and holy saint endowed with divine revelation will instruct you in wisdom bhagavad-gita.
An important homocentric perspective dominates Epic literature and transfers the purely divine elements to a more subordinate position as illustrated by narratives that speak of man's greatness and of gods in human form serving men Mlecko The anthropormorphization of the gods is a significant development in the movement away from the gods as amorphous entities of the Vedas and Upanishads to an increasing focus on embodying the divine in the human guru, thus setting the stage for their subsequent deification in the Puranic and medieval period where the guru is fully identified with one's personal deity Broos The Puranas reveal a more theistic and humanistic conception of the nature of God, thus increasing the guru's divine stature.
I argue that the development of a divine-human personality, as exemplified in Krishna with his relationships with Yosoda, cowherders and the gopis, represent personal relationships that help to map out various human emotions such as, friendship, love, passion, kindness, affection and reverence, which signify modes of devotion that were to be expressed towards God Mlecko This suggests that human emotions were a means of religious devotion and demonstrated that salvation was accessible to all who could embody them.
Furthermore, the shishya's attitude of obedience, propriety and devotion directed at the guru, greatly increased the guru's stature Mlecko This reverent devotion and obedience for one's guru is underscored in Bhagavata Purana, Canto For the one who led by the illusory energy, forgetful of God, turned away in misidentification will fear rise because of being absorbed in things second to the Lord; for that reason should an intelligent person, regarding his guru as his Lord and Soul, worship Him, the Lord fully with unalloyed devotion II, With the necessary material must he, connected in bhakti, free from ulterior motives worship Me, his worshipable guru, in an image, an altar, a fire, the sun, the water or in the twiceborn heart itself XXVII, 9.
The Guru of the Puranic age possesses attributes of a recognizable personality rather than a formless, nebulous being. Moreover, the Bhagavata Purana illustrates how, in the later Puranic period, the guru is regarded as the deity and worshipped accordingly if the student is to achieve liberation and true knowledge of Self Mlecko For example, in the Hari Bhakti Vilasa the guru is identified with Krsna: A brahmana who is a great devotee of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is the spiritual master of all human beings.
Everyone should worship him as if he were Lord Krsna Himself Goswami p. It implies that one should worship the guru first and then Krsna Broos Theologically, the text does not implying the guru is god, but rather suggests as an intellectual and practical application of worship whereby one respects the guru as a wife would respect her husband like a god—meaning the "guru is as good as God, but not God himself" Broos Furthermore, for the shishya to fully understand the secret nature of what the guru has to impart, the shishya must have complete faith in his guru and view him not as a limited, moral being, but instead a like a god Broos What were factors that contributed to a shift in the perspective of God "descending" avatar to man "ascending" into divinity?
With the Bhakti tradition, the ideal personal characteristics of the guru are not defined by a list of scriptural ideals. Instead, a guru who embodies actual lived qualities defines them. Delineated as affection and submission, the guru-shishya practices of the Vaisnavites and Saivite sects show how guru-deification and worship was constructed and authorized in the Bhakti Cults Mlecko The emergence of bhakti and a new kind of guru—who was revered for his inspirational attributes rather than his education and teaching abilities—occurred in the Hindu revival period of the seventh century C.
Highly influenced by Buddhist and Jain doctrines which suggested messianic powers of persons, coupled with the Bhakti movement, facilitated the emergence of a cult of personality whereby devotees enshrined the spiritual, mystical Guru as prophet and mentor Kale This intimate, devotional association between shishya and guru reveals a reaction to the highly intellectual thrust of jnana and Sankara's Advaita Venta which eluded the popular mind at the time.
Instead, medieval philosophers proclaimed bhakti as a favored means of liberation Mlecko An examination of the philosophical approaches by Ramanuja, Nimbarka, Sundarabhatta, and Ramadasa provided the rationalism for bhakti and facilitated the view that the guru is the central focus for seeing God and achieving moksha.
As a metaphysician, Vaisnavite teacher Ramanuja bridged the bhakti tradition with Vedanta and provided the rational for intense Hindu devotionalism.
The Dynamics of Bhakti in the Guru-Shishya Relationship - Cameron Freeman
Furthermore, by proclaiming that even the Sudra and outcastes could achieve salvation by unreserved surrender and devotion to the guru, Ramanuja democratized the movement and prescribed the impetus for a new kind of guruhood Mlecko Nimbarka, an eleventh century C. Sundarabhatta, a follower of Nimbaraka, reinforced the notion that bhakti to one's guru was the best path for salvation because it united karma yoga obeying the guru preceptsjnana yoga knowing the atman and bhakti yoga devotion to the guru Mlecko Later in the seventieth century C.
Furthermore, Self cannot be realized through science and its mental and physical powers, or through meditation, devotion and worship without the grace of the guru. Ramadasa reiterates that even Rama and Krishna and all other Sages and Saints of by-gone times, were devoted unconditionally to the service of their Spiritual Master Mlecko In fact, Ramadasa's love and admiration for the guru was so intense that he considered the guru greater than God: He who regards God as superior to the Guru is a fool Before the greatness of the Guru, the greatness of God is as nothing God is made God by men by the power of Mantras; but the Guru cannot be made even by God.
The power of God is the power of illusion; the power of the Guru carries everything. Dasaboda V, 3, Mlecko In the Vedic tradition, the Brahmacarin commanded strict obedience from the pupil who stayed with him in his asrama, usually from a young age to as long as 24 years, during which the shishya would, in exchange for the guru's instruction, perform menial service for him and his family.
Graduating, the student now a full fledged member of the varna of which he was born into, owed nothing more to the guru Broos The ongoing historical development of the guru institution would, by the seventh century, find the guru in a position of great reverence and worship by the shishya within the Vaisnavite and Saivite bhakti sects Mlecko The Guru in Gaudiya Vaisnavism was necessary to help the pupil on the path of bhakti to shed himself of all maya by initiation through several stages, one of which is service to the guru and another is learning the acarna rites from the mantra-guru Dimock Moreover, the guru goes beyond just being a teacher or guide, he is considered a saviour.
Jiva Gosvamin explains in his Bhakti-sandarbha that the mantra-guru is the greatest of gurus and is the highest truth and can release the disciple from samsara.Guru Shishya relationship Special - Thursday Spiritual Satsang 6 July 2017
The logic of the guru as a saviour is tied to the notion that the true guru is an unbounded liberated soul and by worshipping Krsna and serving the guru, the disciple is released from the web of maya Broos The guru must have the following qualities see Mundaka Upanishad 1.
According to Advaita, the seeker will be able to attain liberation from the cycle of births and deaths moksha. The Hindus believe that the Vedas have been handed down through the ages from guru to shishya. The Vedas themselves prescribe for a young brahmachari to be sent to a Gurukul where the Guru referred to also as acharya teaches the pupil the Vedas and Vedangas. The pupil is also taught the Prayoga to perform yajnas. The term of stay varies Manu Smriti says the term may be 12 years, 36 years or 48 years.
After the stay at the Gurukul the brahmachari returns home after performing a ceremony called samavartana. Shaktipat The guru passes his knowledge to his disciples by virtue of the fact that his purified consciousness enters into the selves of his disciples and communicates its particular characteristic.
In this process the disciple is made part of the spiritual family kula - a family which is not based on blood relations but on people of the same knowledge. Bhakti extends from the simplest expression of devotion to the ego-destroying principle of prapattiwhich is total surrender. The bhakti form of the guru—shishya relationship generally incorporates three primary beliefs or practices: Devotion to the guru as a divine figure or Avatar.
This doctrine is perhaps best expressed in the teachings of the four Samayacharya saints, who shared a profound and mystical love of Siva expressed by: Deep humility and self-effacement, admission of sin and weakness; Total surrender to God as the only true refuge; and A relationship of lover and beloved known as bridal mysticismin which the devotee is the bride and Siva the bridegroom.
In its most extreme form it sometimes includes: The assignment of all or many of the material possessions of the shishya to the guru. The strict and unconditional adherence by the shishya to all of the commands of the guru.