Evolving a core-periphery pattern of manufacturing industries across Chinese provinces
interaction via international trade flows conforms to core periphery structure over time. developing economies, such as, China did emerge among other dominant global traders. of the centre-periphery concept in the global geography. periphery relationship T.D. Santos () assumed the spatial form of dependence. Just as geography shaped the present fates of China's core regions, relationship between different peoples along the periphery and the. The world can be divided into a core and periphery, with the core containing most of that prevent the poorer citizens of the world from participating in global relations. majority in the periphery, the world maintains a rough and limiting geography. Did You Know China's One-Child Policy Has Changed?.
In other words, industrial spatial pattern is based on production features and differences in regional advantage; thus, different regions develop industries according to their own advantages in the spatial division of production.
Core & Periphery Theory
As Bottazzi et al. The core-periphery pattern is a universal phenomenon in North America and Europe. Although development levels among regions have been somewhat converging, the core-periphery pattern has still been steady.
Holmes and Stevens detected differentiated industrial structures across regions, in line with the core-periphery gradient of urbanization in the U. Vogialtzoglou investigated changes in industrial spatial distribution of NAFTA and found specialization between countries, with manufacturing industries transferring to Mexico the periphery from the U. Empirical studies on industrial spatial patterns are not as plentiful as theoretical studies, and they mainly focus on developed countries or regions other than developing countries.
In this sense, studying the case of China becomes meaningful, as it is a large developing country and economic spatial patterns have changed a lot owing to uneven development among regions in past years.
This case helps to understand deeply how the general law of economic geography works. Afterthe spatial pattern of industry in China changed significantly because of market-oriented reforms and globalization. Studies on spatial distribution of industries are basically based on the views of regional specialization and industrial agglomeration. Many studies indicate industrial concentration as the primal feature, a view that has been reinforced corresponding to the progress of market-oriented reforms Fujita and Hu, ; Wen, ; He et al.
Meanwhile, regions have become specialized since the late s Wei and Zhou,and He and Xie found significant spatial differences in manufacturing, especially in export, material, consumer market and high profit oriented industries.
Specifically, Wu and Li found labor-intensive manufacturing clustering along the southeastern coast, while resource intensive manufacturing clustered in northern China and central and western regions. In recent years, the spread of industries from east to west has occurred, reinforcing the specialization between core and peripheral regions to a certain extent.
He and Wang found labor-intensive industries transferred from coastal to central regions, and Feng argued that industrial spatial transfers also occurred in resource-dependent and resource-intensive industries. These studies explain the change in industrial spatial patterns based on the paradigm of comparative advantage and the new economic geography. Market-oriented reforms and opening-up policy are the catalysts that provoke industries to advantageously relocate across regions and form new industrial spatial patterns.
Human capital, labor costs, and natural resources are important locational factors Wu and Li, However, Bao et al. Owing to globalization, coastal areas are able to tap their geographical advantage for industrial agglomeration Jin et al. Through mechanisms such as cumulative causation, agglomeration forces of the home market effect, backward-forward linkages, and technology spillovers that enable further agglomeration, economic patterns are shaped.
Contemporary studies provide many meaningful conclusions on industrial spatial distribution in China. However, they are insufficient as they focus on the view of the aggregate, but not on specific features and changing trends.
China is a unique developing country, with the unequal distribution of industries being the result of the movement of factors of production due to footloose industrial reallocation and asynchronous development in regions. Therefore, it becomes necessary to study the features of industrial spatial distribution in China from the perspective of regional economic gradient differences.World-Systems Theory, Dependency Theory and Global Inequality
Consequently, this paper demonstrates the core-periphery pattern of industries across provinces based on regional economic gradients. The structure of the paper is arranged as follows: Consumers tend to work and live there with the benefits of lower price and higher real wage forward linkagesso that it promotes industrial agglomeration in core regions. Venables used an understanding based on linkages of upstream and downstream industry, instead of labor transfer as in Krugman Considering transport costs, upstream industries become attracted to regions where several downstream industries are already located.
Meanwhile, upstream industries will appeal downstream to locate. The intermediate-input intensive industry and upstream industry of manufacturing are inclined to locate in regions with better manufacturing bases. The results show that market potential was central to the existence of the manufacturing belt, that it mattered more than factor endowments, and that its impact came through interactions both with scale economies and with linkage effects. Generally speaking, core and periphery regions affect spatial distribution of industries through scale economies, market potential, and input-output linkages between industries.
Intermediate-input intensive industry tends to locate in core regions with a better manufacturing base because of input transport cost saving. Upstream industry of manufacturing tends to locate in core regions with a better manufacturing base because of output transport cost saving. Industries with increasing returns to scale tend to locate in core regions with large market potential and better infrastructure.
In order to control effects of other factors and enhance the estimation accuracy of the model, traditional trade theory and special features of China should be considered. Traditional trade theory emphasizes industrial structure of a region. Specialization is determined first by resource endowment, technology, and policy. As it is hard to measure factors such as technology, consumer preference, and so on, this paper only considers differences in resource endowment.
Inthe United States sold military arms to Taiwan. As a result, China began to deny routine access to its ports for US ships. Inthe UN changed its position and gave the seat to Beijing.
The UN indicated it could not give a seat to Taiwan because Taiwan is not recognized as a legal nation. InTaiwan renewed its efforts to be internationally recognized as a sovereign nation and announced tentative plans to formally secede from China. China responded with many threats and conducted military exercises across the strait from Taiwan. The military exercises were seen as another threat, essentially a show of military might, meant to intimidate Taiwan into retreating from its secessionist position.
The United States supported Taiwan by parking a naval fleet nearby, which incensed the mainland government. InChina passed a law authorizing the use of military force to stop any secessionist actions by Taiwan.
As incomes and skills advanced, production shifted to electronics and high-end goods, which it has since been exporting around the world.
Taiwan has achieved a high standard of living for its people. Labor in SEZs is less expensive, leading to a corresponding rise in profits. Unfortunately, this has resulted in higher unemployment levels in Taiwan. Photo courtesy of J Aaron Farr, http: InTaiwan elected a government that, though nationalist in its ideology, is committed to strengthening trade and investment with China.
Taiwan has been able to independently compete in world-class sporting events, including the Olympics, under the name Chinese Taipei. It is debatable whether Tibet or any of the other Chinese regions are actually autonomous.
The legal structures actually allow for very little self-governance, and most new initiatives require approval from the Chinese central government. Tibet had been an independent entity through much of its history and governed itself as a Buddhist theocracy. Its theocratic political system established the Dalai Lama as both the head of state and the religious leader of the Tibetan people.
Tibet has had a complicated history with China. This is as true of its early history as it is today.
In its early history, Tibet was an independent kingdom with its unique type of Buddhism as its state religion. It was during this era that a system of Lamaism, a hierarchy of monks or other religious leaders, took hold. The Mongols subsumed Tibet into their empire during the first part of their conquests in the thirteenth century.
However, in the fifteenth century, the Mongols gave considerable local authority to the Dalai Lama, making him the spiritual leader as well a powerful political figure. Tibet came under the control of China during the Qing Dynasty. When imperialist rule ended in China inTibet began to once again assert its independence.
Chinese, British, and Tibetan officials met and came up with an agreement that partitioned Tibet into Inner Tibet, which would be controlled by China, and Outer Tibet, which would be independent. China later indicated its intention to control all of Tibet, a move greatly resented by the Tibetan people.
When Communists took control of China inthe Dalai Lama was originally allowed control over domestic affairs while China would control all other governmental functions. The Chinese government then took steps to greatly reduce the powers of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama spiritual leader. With the intention of spreading Communism to Tibet, China destroyed monasteries, religious symbols and icons, and other long-practiced ways of life were threatened. The Tibetans considered the Chinese political dominance a cruel and invading force.
Monasteries were burned, monks were beaten or imprisoned, and Buddhism was brutally suppressed. Tibetans revolted in Backed by the United States, the revolt continued even as China indicated it would suspend the transformation of Tibet.
China brutally crushed the revolt inleaving tens of thousands of Tibetans dead or imprisoned. The Dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetans fled to Dharamsala, India, where they established a government in exile.
At this point, China had a firm grip on Tibet, and in the reorganization of Tibet into a Chinese socialist region began in full force. During the s and early s, China expressed some willingness to relent in its authoritarian control of Tibet. However, they demanded that the Dalai Lama renounce claims of Tibetan independence, which he refused.
Demonstrations and continued violence occurred throughout this period. Chinese-Tibetan relations were further damaged when the Panchen Lama died mysteriously shortly after criticizing socialist reform in Tibet. There is now a controversy with the Chinese government over the selection of the eleventh Panchen Lama. China and Tibet both claimed the authority over choosing the Panchen Lama and each named a different person to take on the role. The situation illustrates the conflict over the minds and the people of Tibet.
Who Is the Dalai Lama? The Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader of all Tibetans. The Masters have grown behind the cycle of death and rebirth and choose their own time of rebirth to help educate humanity in how to live. As indicated, the Dalai Lama was always considered the head of state for the government of Tibet and its capital was located in Lhasa. Tenzin Gyatso is the rebirth of the thirteenth Dalai Lama. The Dalai Lama originally, under military pressure from China, ratified the Seventeen Point agreement.
Inhe left Tibet and went into exile in India. China has crushed any attempt of Tibetan resistance. While in India, the Dalai Lama has established the Tibetan government in exile and is attempting to preserve Tibetan culture among the thousands of refugees that have accompanied him. Photo courtesy of Marco Bonavoglia, http: Ina peaceful protest led by Buddhist monks turned violent. Chinese authorities responded with a harsh crackdown. China has often been a target for protests because of its human rights violations against Tibetans and other minority groups.
Little attention was drawn to Tibet during the Olympic Games. China wanted to showcase its advancements in industrial development and culture and did not want the world to focus on the issues with Tibet or any other part of China. The population of Tibet is only about three million.
They mainly live in the mountain valleys, below seven thousand feet.
In the past couple of decades, China has softened its treatment of Tibetans and restored some of the monasteries. China has also moved thousands of ethnically Chinese people into Tibet to shift the ethnic balance of the population. A major rail line now directly connects Beijing with Lhasa, Tibet.
Lhasa will soon have a majority Chinese population with cultural similarities that reflect more the attributes of China Proper than Tibet.
The Tibetans who live there are being compromised simply by population dilution. Tibet is a peripheral region with raw materials that provide benefits to the core areas of China, which require the raw materials for industrial development. As indicated previously, China wants to maintain the mountainous, rural region—with little inhabitable land area and very few people—as a buffer state between India and the Han Chinese heartland of China Proper.
Tibet is also becoming more important to the government of Beijing and the business people in Shenzhen and Shanghai. To understand why this is, consider the core-peripheral spatial relationship. What do the core and the periphery usually have to offer each other? Consider also how countries gain wealth. Tibet can play an important role in the larger picture of the Chinese economy. The mountains of Tibet potentially hold vast amounts of natural resources that could support the growing industrial economy in China, which is based on manufacturing goods for the global export markets.
China will continue to see to it that Tibet becomes economically integrated with the rest of China in spite of the cultural differences that may exist. Mountains, high plains, and grass-covered steppe cover much of Mongolia, a country that receives only between four and ten inches of rain per year, precipitation that usually comes in the form of snow.
The Gobi Desert to the south, extending from southern Mongolia into northern China, receives even less precipitation. Inner Mongolia is a sparsely inhabited autonomous region south of Mongolia that is governed by the Chinese government. The Soviet Union used Mongolia as a buffer state with China. Tibetan Buddhism is the dominant religion in Mongolia and is practiced by about 50 percent of the population.
The Communist influence is evident in that approximately 40 percent of the population considers itself nonreligious. Most of the people are of Mongol ethnicity. Today, about 30 percent of the people are still seminomadic and migrate seasonally to accommodate good grazing for their livestock.
A round yurt A traditional, round, tent-like dwelling of nomadic people of Mongolia that can be disassembled and moved as the people migrate with their herds of livestock to new grazing areas. Mongolian culture and heritage revolve around a rural agrarian culture with an extensive reliance on the horse. Archery, wrestling, and equestrian events are some of the most popular sporting activities.
Photo courtesy of hu: Mongolia has rich mineral resources of coal, molybdenum, copper, gold, tin, and tungsten. Key Takeaways Hong Kong was a British colony with an excellent port that provided access to China during the colonial era. Hong Kong became an economic tiger and regained its importance for trade with the mainland during the open door policy of China in the s.
The colony was returned to China in under an autonomous arrangement.