Brochero causal relationship

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There is little existing information on the functional relationships between .. Santacoloma L, Brochero H, Chavez B. Estado de la susceptibilidad a water and elevated Aedes aegypti larval indices: a causal relationship?. In terms of the relationship between forest cover and malaria, 11% (5 of 47 articles) of the .. Arrows indicate likely causal relationships, which in some cases may be bi-directional (e.g. .. Jiménez IP,; Conn JE,; Brochero H. may facilitate the identification of novel biological processes and genes involved in CAD, as well as clarify the causal relationships of established processes.

Lack of a chemical barrier to mosquito breeding puts drinking water containers at a potentially higher risk of becoming dengue vector breeding sites.

Resistance to temephos in Aedes aegypti has been identified in many locations in Colombia, including in the current study area [ 23 - 25 ]. Studies from the Caribbean region indicate that poor provision of reliable drinking water supply and waste disposal services was largely responsible for Ae. In Colombia, householders often keep a stored supply of water in the home, even in areas with access to piped water.

These same containers were also shown to be the primary dengue vector breeding sites in studies in Antioquia and Cundinamarca provinces in central Colombia [ 2930 ]. While the water stored in these containers is often used for washing and cooking, it can also be used for human consumption.

Although little published research is available on the epidemiology of diarrheal illness in Colombia, lack of access to reliable, clean drinking water is likely a key factor in making it a leading cause of morbidity, particularly among children. There is little existing information on the functional relationships between diarrhea and dengue fever. A literature search reveals few studies where risk factors of the two diseases have been studied simultaneously and how one affects the other.

As no studies of this kind have been carried out in schools, little is known of how stored water influences the risk of diarrhea and dengue and how interventions against both diseases affect children in school settings. Our study focuses on schools for two key reasons. First, the morning biting peak of the local dengue vector occurs when children are likely to be in school [ 30 ]. If schools are important dengue vector breeding grounds, children attending school may be disproportionately exposed.

Objectives This trial will investigate whether a set of disease-specific interventions will significantly reduce diarrheal cases and dengue entomological risk factors in rural primary schools in two municipalities in Colombia. The hypothesis is that the interventions will significantly reduce the number of diarrheal disease cases, the number of school absence episodes, dengue vector infestation, and water contamination as compared to schools that do not receive the interventions.

Specifically, we hypothesize that the interventions will: Each school cluster is randomized to one of four study arms: Randomization of study arms is stratified by municipality two municipalities, that is, two levels.

Urban malaria transmission in a non-endemic area in the Andean region of Colombia

Control schools will carry out their normal activities without any intervention through this or any other project. A cluster design was considered the only feasible option for two main reasons. First, it would not be possible to evaluate the effect of the two individual interventions if they were both implemented in all the same schools. Second, it will be possible to evaluate the interventions as they would have been implemented in a practical disease control initiative.

Frequency distributions and summary measures, as well as univariate analysis were performed for all the variables in consideration.

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The annual parasite index API was calculated. A majority of the cases were reported in men This population did not use protective measures against mosquitoes and chemical control was conducted through residual and spatial insecticide spraying. A greater intensity was observed between and when malaria was possibly reintroduced to the region. During the years of the study, a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases of malaria was observed in Pereira, except for the time period between and when a spike was noted estimated using the API ; this was most likely caused by an outbreak.

Interventions that are more aggressive in nature are required to prevent further malarial transmission and dissemination. In the American continent, the decrease was much more significant, going from 1.

Statistical Language - Correlation and Causation

Despite this significant decrease, malaria remains a threat to communities in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, where it imposes a significant burden and has an associated economic impact. Rapid urbanisation combined with difficult socio-economic conditions such as inadequate housing infrastructure, lack of public services, improper sanitation, and poor water drainage systems in vegetation-rich areas create ecological conditions that are conducive to mosquito breeding and malaria transmission.

In non-causal relationships, the relationship that is evident between the two variables is not completely the result of one variable directly affecting the other.

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In the most extreme case, Two variables can be related to each other without either variable directly affecting the values of the other. The two diagrams below illustrate mechanisms that result in non-causal relationships between X and Y. If two variables are not causally related, it is impossible to tell whether changes to one variable, X, will result in changes to the other variable, Y.

For example, the scatterplot below shows data from a sample of towns in a region.

How to have a casual relationship and not a committed one

The positive correlation between the number of churches and the number of deaths from cancer is an example of a non-causal relationship -- the size of the towns is a lurking variable since larger towns have more churches and also more deaths. Clearly decreasing the number of churches in a town will not reduce the number of deaths from cancer!