Farm management | agriculture | index-art.info
Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals? environmental health, Agricultural sustainability rests on the principle that we must meet the needs of the and food systems perspective is essential to understanding sustainability. and provides habitat for beneficial insects, while also building soil organic matter. Jan 21, Agriculture is the art and science of cultivating the soil, growing Educator 3 Grade 6 Grade 7 Grade Agriculture provides most of the world's food and fabrics. . elements were most essential to plant growth: nitrogen, phosphorus, and . Such crops reduce the need for using costly chemicals and trade. Nov 5, Why the relationship between water and agriculture needs to change A WRI analysis shows just how much tension exists between those two essential resources. at irrigated cropland, which produces 40 percent of global food supply. 3. Irrigated land is twice as likely to be highly stressed. Irrigation.
One of these defenses is a protein that blocks digestion of the soy leaves in insects. Since this gene was deactivated, the beetles were able to digest a much higher amount of plant matter than the beetles in the control field.
This led to the observed longer lifespans and higher egg-laying rates in the experimental field.
One proposed solution is to increase the number of pesticides used on future crops. Many pest insects have been building up an immunity to these pesticides. Another proposed solution is to utilize biological control agents. This solution is beneficial in its overall environmental impact. Not only are more native plants getting planted, but pest insects are no longer building up an immunity to pesticides.
However, planting additional native plants requires more room, which destroys additional acres of public land. The cost is also much higher than simply using pesticides. It has been predicted that the effect of climate change will add a level of complexity to figuring out how to maintain sustainable agriculture.
Jalgaon district, Indiahas an average temperature which ranges from Depending on conditions during August, more crop failures could rise global food prices. Lester Brown, the head of Worldwatch, an independent research organisation, predicted thatfood prices will rise in the next few months. Overall food shortages are not expected this year.
But, for prevent hunger, instability, new waves of Climate refugees international help to countries who will luck the money to buy enough food and stopping conflicts will be needed   see also Climate change adaptation. In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, "low confidence" means that a particular finding has about a 2 out of 10 chance of being correct, based on expert judgement.
Most of the studies on global agriculture assessed by Schneider et al. Studies had also not considered the development of specific practices or technologies to aid adaptation to climate change. US NRC  stressed the uncertainties in their projections of changes in crop yields. Using data from the UN Food and Agriculture Organization as well as other public sources, the authors analyzed different staple foods, such as wheatricemaizevegetablesroots and fruits. In contrast, general economic growth along with the continued reduction of the farm labour force has cumulative effects on the return to farm labour.
If the returns to farm labour were to grow at an average annual rate of about 3 percent, for example, farm prices would have to increase at least 3 percent annually assuming other prices did not change to have the same effect on returns to farm resources.
- Nature and Agriculture – the Evolving Relationships
- Climate change and agriculture
- Understanding Supply Factors for Agricultural Products
Costs The costs of the agricultural price and income policies of industrial countries are substantial; they include not only direct governmental outlays but also the increased costs to consumers in those countries, as well as the losses to developing countries of potential export markets.
The organization of farming Ownership Except in the few countries with communist governments, most farmland is privately owned.
That does not mean, however, that the land is owned by those who farm it. In most countries a major aspiration of farm people has been to achieve the ownership of the land they work.
After World War IIfor example, Japan and Taiwan underwent land reforms that were intended to broaden ownership, and similar reforms have been advocated in other countries. On a cooperative farm the land is owned jointly by the members of the group who farm it. The cooperative generally also owns all the major means of production, and the members supply all or most of the labour. While there are examples of cooperative farms in many countries, they loom large only in Israel, where the kibbutzim control about one-tenth of all agricultural land.
In a collective farm, at least as organized in the former Soviet republics, the land was owned by the state but was permanently leased to the kolkhoz collective farm.
The kolkhoz owned its own equipment and livestock and was required to meet certain commitments to the state in the form of deliveries of farm products. In theory, the members of the kolkhoz were to elect the officers of the farm and establish the procedures by which the net product was to be divided among the members for services performed.
In practice, however, their autonomy was severely limited by the economic plans. In most cases these plans were incredibly detailed, specifying the crops to be grown, the times of plowing, planting, and harvesting, the quantities of fertilizer and manures to be used, and the kinds of livestock to be maintained.
On state farms the land and all other means of production are owned by the state. The workers are paid in wages, and management decisions are made by individuals directly responsible to the state. Kinds of farm operation If a family farm is defined as one for which the farm operator and family members supply at least half of the labour, the majority of farms in the world are family farms. Family farming is carried on under a wide range of conditions, from the small farms of Asia to the highly mechanized farms of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
The family farm may be owned by the farmer or rented. The most rapidly expanding type of tenure in the United States is that in which the farmer owns part of the land and rents the remainder; almost one-third of all farmland in the United States consists of part-owner farms. This arrangement enables the farmer to increase the size of the farm through renting and to invest capital in machinery and livestock.
Family farms may be large in terms of total assets or sales. The relative importance of family farms among the largest farms in the United States has increased over the past few decades. One of the more striking changes in industrial countries has been the increased importance of nonfarm income received by farm families. In the United States, Canada, and Japan more than half of the total income of farm families comes from nonfarm sources, while in most western European countries at least a third of the income of farm families is earned outside of agriculture.
A system of tenant farming known as sharecropping developed in the South of the United States following the freeing of the slaves in the 19th century. It was essentially an adjustment of the plantation system created to permit the owners to maintain a large measure of control over farm operations.
The sharecroppers usually supplied only the labour, while the owners provided animal power, machinery, and most of the other inputs in the form of an advance.
The sharecroppers received what was left after they had paid back the owners—generally about half of what had been produced. For various reasons, including the exodus of blacks from American agriculture, the introduction of farm machineryand the reduction in the acreage of cotton, the number of sharecroppers in the South has diminished drastically since In the second half of the 20th century, there began a growth of large-scale farming run as a business enterprise.
agricultural economics | Definition, Scope, & Facts | index-art.info
There are farms covering extensive areas of land in Africa, South AmericaAustralia, and the United States, where farms became larger as their numbers grew smaller.
Such large farms tend to specialize in the production of vegetables, fruits, cotton, poultry and poultry products, and livestock. Comparative strengths and weaknesses If they were free to choose, most farm families would want to own the land they farm.
Wherever collectivization of private farmers has been carried out, it has required the use of force or the threat of force.
But if family farming is to be viable, it must function efficiently, which means that farmers must have access to adequate sources of credit; must be able to obtain fertilizers, machinery, and other equipment; and must be able to market their produce easily.
Laws and institutions must be sufficiently flexible to permit the average size of farms to increase as economic growth occurs. Collective farming did not fulfill the hopes of its early advocates.
In the Soviet Union the collective farm was used by Joseph Stalin as a means of exploiting the rural population in order to finance the expansion of industrialization.
In the post-Stalin era the incomes of collective farm members increased, and it was believed that many remaining difficulties could be eliminated if the farms were given greater freedom in running their affairs.
Elasticity of Supply Supply elasticity is a measure of how much producers of a product change the quantities they are willing to sell in response to a change in price.
If the change in sales is large compared to a unit change in price, supply is said to be elastic. Figure 3 shows an elastic supply curve.Tony Robbins: How to Have a Healthy Relationship (Tony Robbins relationships)
Notice how a relatively small price increase results in a large increase in the amount producers are willing to sell. On the other hand, if the change in the quantity supplied is small relative to a unit change in price, supply is said to be relatively inelastic. Figure 4 shows an inelastic supply situation, where a price increase does not result in a large increase in the amount that producers are willing to sell. Supply elasticity is usually written as a positive number since a higher price can be expected to result in more product being offered for sale and a smaller price will usually result in less product offered for sale.
It is important to understand the difference between shifts in supply and changes in quantity supplied. Shifts in supply occur as a result of a change in one or more of the supply influences see list above but not a change in the product's price. A supply shift changes the amount producers are willing to supply at all price levels.
Changes in quantity supplied occur only as a result of a change in the price of the product. A change in quantity supplied is represented as a change in position along a product's supply curve with all other factors staying the same. Several factors have an influence on the quantity supplied in response to a product's price changes. The factors include time, the cost structure of producers, producer price expectations, ability to store a product, and the ease of changing from the production of one product to another.
The influence of time may be short, medium or long-term. In the short-term, responsiveness of quantity supplied to price change tends to be small as changes cannot be made quickly. Once a crop is seeded, for example, farmers have limited ability to alter the quantities they put on the market. Therefore, in the short-term, market supply is relatively inelastic or unresponsive.
Where there is no opportunity to adjust production in response to price, the supply curve is vertical and the market supply is fixed. Figure 5 shows a fixed supply curve where, regardless of price, quantity supplied or market supply remains constant. As the length of time represented in the supply curve - the production time period - grows, market supply tends to become more elastic or more responsive to price changes. The physical production process of any particular commodity influences how much time must pass for a term to be considered short or long.
The short-term is that length of time over which only a few inputs can be changed. For example, once land is allocated to a crop and the crop is seeded, changes in planned output are limited. Similarly, once heifers are bred, planned output is not very flexible in the "short-term". Because of the shorter generation cycle, the short-term for chicken or turkey is much shorter than it is for beef. In the long-term, all factors such as land and breeding stock are variable.
2. FARM MANAGEMENT AND FARM TYPES
Somewhere in between these two extremes is the medium-term. Within the medium-term, uses of the existing land base may be altered, for example, before purchase or sale of additional land takes place. The cost structure of firms can influence supply elasticity in two ways.