Vedic religion | Indian religion | index-art.info
It can be understood that the three parts of the Veda deal with the ritualistic part of sects of philosophical thoughts have quoted a lot from the texts of the Upanishads. .. [So] there must be [an intimate relation between] thought, word, and the. They take inspiration and authority from the Veda texts. But aside from this relation, distinctions need to be affirmed between the two concepts. They came to us in written form between , years ago. The Rig-Veda Samhita is the oldest significant extant Indian text. . discusses the qualities of the divine essence (Brahman) and the relationship of the gods to the divine essence.
Another great deity was Varunawho was the upholder of the cosmic and moral laws. Vedism had many other lesser deities, among whom were gods, goddesses, demigods, and demons.
Ritual The ancient Vedic worshippers offered sacrifices to those gods in the hope that they in return would grant abundant numbers of cattle, good fortune, good health, long life, and male progeny, among other material benefits. Thus originated the rites described in the Vedas. The rites of Vedic sacrifice were relatively simple in the early period, when the Rigveda was composed. They required neither temples nor images.
The ceremonies took place in an open space that was consecrated afresh for every important occasion. The altar vedi was a quadrangle marked out by hollowing or slightly raising the ground.
The sacrifices themselves were of two major types—domestic grihya and public srauta, or vaitanika. The domestic rites were observed by the householder himself or with the help of a single priest and were performed over the domestic hearth fire. The grand rites performed in public, by contrast, lasted several days or months and could usually be undertaken only by wealthy men or kings. They required the services of many priests and were usually performed at three fire-altars.
Most characteristic of the public ceremonies was the soma sacrifice, which ensured the prosperity and well-being of both human beings and gods. In that basic ritual, a lay sacrificer was first consecrated, after which juice was pressed three times from the soma plant, part being offered to the fire and part consumed by the priests.
What is the relationship between vedic text and Vedas
Each of the three occasions was preceded and followed by recitations and chants. Edibles such as meat, butter, milk, and barley cake could also be offered to a sacred fire. Animal sacrifice—the killing of a ram or goat—existed either independently or as an integral part of the sacrifice of soma. Human sacrifice purushamedha is described and alluded to as a former practice but probably was merely symbolic. The sacrifice of the mythical giant Purushafrom whose dismembered limbs sprang up the four major social classes varna sprobably served as a model for the conjectured human sacrifices.
Other ceremonies marked fixed dates of the lunar calendarsuch as the full or new moon or the change of seasons. Development and decline Over the centuries, the Vedic rites became increasingly complex and governed by innumerable rules, which were embodied, together with the hymns and prayer formulas used, in the Vedas. During the late Vedic period the complexities of ritual were emphasized to such an extent that only highly trained Brahmans could carry them out correctly, and it was maintained that improperly or incorrectly performed rites could, unless rectified, bring about disaster or death.
In reaction against this excessive emphasis on ritual as well as the growing power of the BrahmansVedic thought in its late period became more speculative and philosophical in approach.
Much speculation was directed toward the search for harmony and for correspondences between macrocosm and microcosm, with the ultimate goal being a reduction of reality to an all-embracing unity by way of successive equations.
In the Aranyakas, Vedic ritual is interpreted in a symbolic rather than literal manner, and the Upanishads question the very assumptions on which Vedism rested.
Yajurveda The Yajurveda Samhita consists of prose mantras. The term "black" implies "the un-arranged, motley collection" of verses in Yajurveda, in contrast to the "white" well arranged Yajurveda. It has about hymns, and about of the hymns are in common with the Rigveda. The text also includes hymns dealing with the two major rituals of passage — marriage and cremation. The Atharva Veda also dedicates significant portion of the text asking the meaning of a ritual.
Grantha script Tamil NaduBelow: Brahmanas The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation of proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhita rituals in the four Vedas. For example, the first chapter of the Chandogya Brahmana, one of the oldest Brahmanas, includes eight ritual suktas hymns for the ceremony of marriage and rituals at the birth of a child. The sixth through last hymns of the first chapter in Chandogya Brahmana are ritual celebrations on the birth of a child and wishes for health, wealth, and prosperity with a profusion of cows and artha.
VedantaUpanishadsand Aranyakas The Aranyakas layer of the Vedas include rituals, discussion of symbolic meta-rituals, as well as philosophical speculations. Two theories have been proposed on the origin of the word Aranyakas. One theory holds that these texts were meant to be studied in a forest, while the other holds that the name came from these being the manuals of allegorical interpretation of sacrifices, for those in Vanaprastha retired, forest-dwelling stage of their life, according to the historic age-based Ashrama system of human life.
Vedanga The Vedangas developed towards the end of the vedic period, around or after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. These auxiliary fields of Vedic studies emerged because the language of the Vedas, composed centuries earlier, became too archaic to the people of that time. Naturally classified with the Veda to which each pertains, Parisista works exist for each of the four Vedas.