Media, Culture and Society | Cultivation Theory
how mediatization research engages with the complex relationship between .. scale relationship between media, culture, and society (Hjarvard, a: ). Dependency theory proposes an integral relationship among audiences, media and the larger social system. This theory predicts that you. The influence of mass media has grown exponentially with the advancement in technology. We as the alert citizens of society have to be aware that the values.
But we consider media not for selfless, honest service but for earning fame, earning money. People desire to live freely, independently and have space in society. We have space when we have identity. So, everyone fights for getting their identity. Media as an agent for socialization and acculturation The boom in media industry has distorted our traditional way of socializing with people. Earlier there ware limitations of various sorts hindering the socialization process.
Our social circle was limited. But now with increasing number of people having easy access to media, mainly internet, the face of socialization has changed forever.
People have become accustomed to socializing in the virtual world. The rising number of social networking sites to the number of people searching for their soul mates in the virtual world proves how media is fast becoming an agent for socialization. Media has grown to cover societies all over the world that we had no clue about. Being aware about the presence of societies with cultures so different than ours has become possible due to media.
Foreign culture no longer seems foreign because of our constant exposure to it through media. Media has become basic need for us. We know world through media and on relating to those we interact with others. We transport our knowledge and share ideas.
We talk about the incidents happening around the globe, about our favorite celebrities and programs. Internet creates a community. Through internet we meet new people.
Hence, in all these, media is the mediator that brings topics for communication which helps us in socializing with people. Every society is influenced more or less by others. We learn about different people and their cultural backgrounds through media and hence it helps us not to become alien with those cultures.
We learn to accept those cultures and apply those in our everyday practices. Speaking in English language, wearing western dresses etc. Somewhere around the age of two or three, children in our society first encounter the media as an agent of socialization in the form of TV.
Socialization comes through the characters, images, words, and narrative story lines. Some media specifically act to be agents of socialization but most only strive to be entertainment sources. Sports, increasingly a branch of marketing, become especially influential for teenage boys. The internet web pages, e-mail, chat rooms have emerged as another media socialization source for people.
Besides, more and more people are flooding to online socialization sites through internet. Social networking sites like facebook, hi5, MySpace, Orkut etc have evolved to provide services beyond just frivolous interaction and entertainment. People have started to become busy in these online sites more than just being out socially in real, through the cables and wires and few other technological devices.
It is the adoption of the culture of one group by another group. It is a one way process where the dominant group has no effect in its culture. It simply means the assimilation of two or more cultures. Further readings Socialization Source: Importance of socialization Essential for individual survival: Biosociology maintains that human behavior in primarily the result of genetic influences and physiology.
For example, male aggression has been linked to higher levels of the hormone testosterone. Therefore, biosociologists would say that males are inherently more aggressive than females and that this is a positive trait from an evolutionary standpoint because the more aggressive males would have been most likely to survive and acquire mates thus passing their aggressive genes along to their descendents.
I suppose the gentle males all got wiped out…. Males may have testosterone, but they learn to be aggressive and they can also learn to be compassionate. Humans are social primates. Without this society itself would cease to exist. Socialization is needed and occurs because humans: Most social scientists agree that, while biology does influence some portions of our personalities, human beings have no instincts.
The newborns are incapable of caring for themselves. In the case of humans this dependency lasts up to 20 years socially anyhowperhaps longer. Sociologists therefore maintain that the self we develop is a result mainly of our social circumstances. However, it is a part of being human, being a primate, to nurture. Therefore, the nurture side is not entirely devoid of nature. Agents of Socialization Provides: What is a primary group? What is a secondary group?
In which of these do we spend most of our adult lives? The period from infancy to about five years is the most important time in our lives for socialization. We learn more during this time span than during the entire rest of our lives.
We start out at birth knowing nothing. By the time we are 5 we can speak, write somecount, tie our shoes, walk.
We learn values as well during this time. The family serves to place us in the stratification system of society. It gives us a social class position at birth.
The American Academy of Pediatrics notes that children as young as 2 are spending, on average, 16 to 17 hours in front of the television every week; children, on average, view about 10, violent acts on television each year. The Academy has further recommended that children under the age of 2 watch no television. Mass Media Functions to socialize: Positive and negative aspects Notes: While we are accustomed to complaints that children or adults watch too much television, a new mass media problem has emerged since Internet Addiction.
Tolerance- needing more time online to achieve satisfaction. Withdrawal symptoms that develop within a few days to a month after reducing or stopping use.
The resumption of use decreases the symptoms. Use of the Internet more often for longer periods of time. Neglect of other important life activities. Excessive use impacts negatively on job, relationship, or other role obligations.
Some research has indicated that middle aged women and people already prone to depression and bipolar disorders are most likely to develop this disorder. The subject has been studied by psychologists. Process of learning new and different norms and values. Can be voluntary- enter a new status on our own through marriage, military service and job. Socialization is a lifelong process. Adult socialization often includes learning new and sometimes very different norms and values from those in which the person was raised.
This process can be voluntary. Currently, joining the military qualifies as an example. The norms and values associated with military life are different, in some cases very different, from those in civilian life. Resocialization into a total institution involves a complete change of personality. Sociologist Erving Goffman studied resocialization in mental institutions.
For example, the institution requires that patients comply with regulations, even when compliance is not necessarily in the best interests of an individual.
Media as cultural artifact With changing times, media has evolved as cultural artifact. Media has become a part of our everyday experience. It has become a culture primarily because media has begun taking some space although not physical in our lives. Cultural artifacts reflect our everyday life and media does the same. We have increasingly become more dependent on media. We are guided by media and people can relate to the media contents.
Newspapers, radios, televisions, internet and mobile technologies have become an integral part of our life. For instance, radio dramas are cultural artifacts because they are representational and participatory. They denote a lifestyle.
When something becomes part of everyday experience and when it is reflected in our attitude and behavior; when something becomes a part of us and our living, it becomes a cultural artifact. For anything to be labeled a cultural artifact, we have to consider how widespread it is. Even if something is disappearing, like pagers, it will still be considered a cultural artifact as it denotes the culture of a certain time-frame in history.
This is to say, culture is not just something from today. It is something from the past as well. Not everything becomes culture. It becomes culture when it becomes a part of your life which invades your life. But a music player is. Media as a whole becomes a culture because we are guided by it learning, exposure, information ; we are dependent on it. It represents who we are. It creates our identity; our experiences are also represented in it. Cellphone is not just a device; it is a part of living, of experience.
The things that become part of living becomes culture in the course of time When it is reflected in our everyday experience, it becomes cultural artifact.
media, culture & society | exploring the relationship between media, culture & society
We love it, we preserve it. Media, education and awareness This is to discuss how development of mass media technologies has helped promotion of education in the world. Proliferation of educational sites; promotion of educational institutions, globalisation of education systems; digital archives and libraries; distance education Media used in distance learning: In other words, the controversies are the issues media deal with and those that the media audience and users experience as the consequences of good or bad representations.
Some pertinent controversies in media are: Is it always so? What is the limitation of exercising such right. The collision between the concept of freedom, journalistic ethics and state laws on media regulations Transparency: To what extent should public information be transparent to the general people? But what are the standards for measuring the goodness or badness of media practices.
More issues [ http: Note that the issues are related to US media. Are American values shaped by the mass media? Are freebies gifts given to journalists the same as bribes? Are news agencies that use press releases and video news releases without attribution guilty of unethical behavior? Are newspapers insensitive to minorities? Are people better informed in the information society?
Media culture and Society | Social Sciences and Humanity Studies Academic Blog
Are the dangers of concentration within media monopolies overstated? Are V-chips and content ratings necessary? Can privacy be protected in the information age? Do advertisers unduly influence news and program? Do magazines compromise their editorial integrity in their push to obtain advertisers and celebrity news? Do media drive foreign policy? Do media technologies increase citizen participation? Do new media have an immediate effect on our behaviors and attitudes?
Do paparazzi freelance photographers threaten privacy and First Amendment rights? Do public relations practitioners provide a valuable service to the public? Do television programs stereotype women? Do the mass media undermine openness and accountability in democracy? Do the media have a liberal conservative bias?
Do the media introduce us to new ways of thinking about things? Does concentration of ownership limit the diversity of voices in the newspaper industry? Does electronic media enhance political knowledge? Does media coverage of criminal trials undermine the legal process? Does media violence cause more violence in society or merely reflects that society is violent? Does the globalization of media industries homogenize media content? Does the Internet have the power to transform culture? Does the low number of women and minorities in the newsroom affect the way in which news is covered and presented?
Has coverage of political campaigns improved? The roots of this perspective are somewhat harder to trace, and the background is more heterogeneous. Furthermore, although the concept of mediatization is adopted in these debates it is used in a wider sense, referring to the more general role of the media in culture and society.
It is also very far removed from the version of mediatization as subsumption under the code advocated by Baudrillard. Lazarsfeld does not use the concept of mediatization, while Nowak does Nowak Still, their view on the role of the media in social and cultural processes is nonetheless the same.
Lazarsfeld and Nowak are, of course, not alone in sharing this view on the relationship between our communication media and society. This quote was later picked up by James Carey While the transmission approach privileges causality and linearity in communication, the ritual approach is apt to answer other kinds of questions — on shared meaning, culture, identity.
If a society exists both by communication and in communication, it also follows that there are no communicating positions outside society. Surely there might be institutions, and these might have autonomous status in relation to other social institutions political parties, for example.
But these institutions will also be a part of the wider society, and contribute to its specific character. So, the institutional perspective on mediatization as I have described it above has to a great degree adopted a transmission perspective on mediatization, while what I call the media as world perspective is closer to the ritual approach.
This ritual approach is integrative. It does not presume society as atomistic but rather as a whole — encompassing several dimensions, but nonetheless an integrated unity.
Its roots are traced by Carey to the functional sociology of Durkheim  in his The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, but it can also be found in the writings of Raymond Williams whom Carey Many people seem to assume as a matter of course that there is, first, reality, and then, second, communication about it.
We degrade art and learning by supposing that they are always second-hand activities: This struggle is not begun, at second hand, after reality has occurred. It is, in itself, a major way in which reality is continually formed and changed.
What we call society is not only a network of political and economic arrangements, but also a process of learning and communication Williams In this sense the representations, accounts, stories, and ideas of individuals are part of social reality just as much as are the more physical objects society also comprises.
The ritual perspective does not primarily analyse casual effects, directions of influence and impact. As David Morley This is, of course, a classical tension between structure and agency, which has also been formulated by Marx: The constraints as well as the possibilities to overcome them include all the structuring institutional arrangements made in culture and society, which develop in conjunction with each other.
However, the ritual view need not necessarily encompass a linear historical explanation, but is rather open to alternative historical understandings, taking their departure in alternative conceptualizations of historical time alongside the linear, for example in circular time emphasizing its — 11 — repetitive, ritualistic quality or even punctual time whereby time is defined not by its succession of moments but by its social or cultural quality.
This is also a perspective on social and cultural development that could emphasize the role of the media not in terms of causality but as archive, as a common intellectual resource, a heritage that includes prehistoric art and literature, early forms of communication and cultural formation, cultural practices, the assemblage of cultural technologies at our disposal in the form of both technological hardware machines of different kinds and technological software, that is, the various techniques men and women have developed for communication the signifying practice of language as such, poetry, genres, and other presentational forms, etc.
Mediatization, then, points to the increased presence of the media as technologies in society, and the consequences of this on its qualitative character Hannerz ; cf.
According to Nowak First, we communicate within an increasingly media rich environment where we have access to increasingly many and more differentiated media technologies. And if society, as Dewey argues, exists in communication, this is indeed an increasingly technified — mediatized — form of communication.
And in this sense, we should acknowledge some mediated phenomena produced in an increasingly mediatized communication environment as important instances of late modern media life.
Let me conclude the discussion by giving some examples of media phenomena that indeed have an impact on the character of society, but are difficult to analyse in terms of the media imposing themselves on a supposedly previously unmediated phenomenon. Two such examples are the media event the Eurovision Song Contest, the Olympics and the sign commodity texts, audiences, formats, the brand.
These phenomena have little existence outside the media, either as institutions or technologies. Nonetheless, they need to be seen as social and cultural phenomena that are clearly part of our present social realities. They have been chosen because they are examples of phenomena that do not pretend to represent or make a mediated account of a social reality outside the institution of the media, but nonetheless need to be considered part of everyday social reality.
The first example is the Olympic Games in their modern form. While these games do indeed have an unmediated prehistory dating back to ancient Greece ca.
The modern games are also, contrary to the ancient games, international.
This presupposes some form of communication medium to report back to the partaking national audiences. Indeed, it would be peculiar if one arranged an international competition of supposedly great national interest if there were no means to report back to citizens of partaking nation-states. We can thus argue that the modern Olympic Games have never occurred in unmediatized form.
The media as technologies and as institutions sports journalism have always been an integrated part and a main component. Admittedly, the media technologies have changed sincewhich has had an impact on the ways the Olympic Games have been mediated back to national audiences, the ways they have been represented. But there has never been an unmediated Olympic moment in the modern era. The Olympic Games are mediated in the meaning that they develop in tandem with the media organizations and technologies involved in their mediation to national audiences.
This long-standing institution in European television history, initiated in by the European Broadcasting Union EBU and broadcast yearly to European and some other audiences, was in fact initiated as a cultural technology Bolin to communify the European countries through a common entertainment competition.
From having been a limited phenomenon at its start only seven countries took part in the first competitionit has today grown to be one of the largest non-sport media events in Europe. As a production initiated by the EBU, however, it has little life separate from the media; that is, if by media we mean the integrated efforts of television, the Internet, the tabloid press, weeklies and fan press, as well as the music media — record companies, streaming services, and others with an interest in making revenues out of the music.
From an institutional perspective, the ESC is an institution in its own right. It naturally affects other media institutions, including journalism, but it makes little sense to say that this conglomerate of media technologies and institutions has an impact on other non-media institutions in society, as the media form is always already there.
There is no unmediated version of ESC that can be affected, and although there is a live studio audience present at each final, the production is clearly not aimed at these individuals but rather at the viewing audience in countries all over Europe Bolin Most media commodities today also have the characteristic of being sign commodities.
The first of these appears with broadcasting technology, whereby the radio programme or television show, initially broadcast live, consists of nothing but airwaves. Indeed, this is just the point Thomas Streeter made when he called his book on the history of commercial broadcasting policy in the US Selling the Air Streeter The commodity at the basis of the commercial broadcasting system was a — 13 — combination of signs that were technologically encoded and decoded in the transfer from broadcaster to the viewing and listening audience.
Broadcasting was analogue, at least initially, and with digitization this quality is further established. However, with digitization even media texts that were previously not pure sign structures but were rather firmly bound to their tangible carriers — for example the book or the newspaper — now became intangible and versatile, and could float between technological platforms of storage and distribution.
With digitization, then, many if not most media texts become pure sign commodities. A specific content form is the format, that is, the basic idea for the production of a television show often in the reality genres that allows for national adaptation. However, this crust is, contrary to the crust in an apple pie, not possible to put on a plate, and it is consumed in its sign form, as a principle for how to put together and produce a television show. This is also why the legal frameworks protecting this commodity are so weak, which makes this specific market for formats totally reliant on the common belief among those involved in the commodity.
If the involved parties of buyers and sellers were to doubt the value of the commodity, the market would disappear instantly.
A second sign commodity that appears, not with digitization but rather with the rationalizations of the commercial mass media, is the audience. Audiences, if we distinguish this commodity based on statistical aggregation from the social subjects who listen, read, and watch mass media, have become an increasingly sophisticated statistical construct. This commodity is worked upon by the marketing and audience analysis divisions of large media companies, and is tooled into the commodity that is the basis of their revenues.
This construct is based on mathematical calculation, estimations and probability theory through a range of data-generating technologies: Although there have been dramatic advances in methodology, all these techniques share the disadvantage that they do not represent social reality 1: They are estimates, ranging from pure guesswork to statistical descriptions with high significance — but they never equal social reality. They are merely representations of this social reality, and the basis for the calculation of prices for advertising or other marketing techniques.
The commodity sold is based on the common agreement between seller and buyer on a price, and the mutual belief that the calculated statistics are good enough. Like any other market, the audience market is based on the belief that the signifier — the figure indicating the size and composition of the audience — has a referent in social reality cf. A third sign commodity is traffic.
In the digital world, media users have increasing access to means of production and distribution on social networking sites and other forums that, as their business model, have user traffic at their centre.
The tightened bonds between the telecommunications industry and other parts of the media and advertising industries mean that much of the media economy builds on bytes transferred through fibre optic cables or Wi-Fi networks. In such an economy even waste turns into economic value, because it matters very little to the telecommunications companies what content flows through their networks as long as it produces traffic.
Illegal downloading is then also to the benefit of these companies, as is spam mail. Spam mail, in fact, is a very peculiar entity in this economic circuit. This is, however, a general kind of traffic commodity. Through new business models and opportunities provided for by digitization, there has also appeared a specific traffic commodity. As the telecommunications companies — our telephone and Internet service providers — have access to the data we as users produce, they can also map out our behaviour on the web and produce user behaviour profiles.
The websites we visit, the patterns of our e-mail correspondence, our patterns of search on Google, Yahoo! And all these commodities have the quality of being intangible.
They consist of aggregated information in large data banks that can be harvested and turned into economic value by those who control the communication flows. My fourth example of a sign commodity is the brand.
A brand can be described as a complex signifier, constructed in semiotic labour with the purpose of producing a specific signified connected to a company or a consumer commodity. The brand is the most obvious sign commodity, as it is a construct that everyone acknowledges as a construct. A brand is descriptive as well as prescriptive. As such it works at the level of the sign, and is thus subsumed by the laws of signification.
In the traditional industrial production of tangible commodities, brand differentiation was adopted as a strategy to separate one commodity from another within the same functional area. With increased market competition, branding strategies became more important, and hence the sign value of commodities, as the value brands are built on, gradually took command over the functional use values of objects and commodities, and the sign value itself became the most important object of consumption Baudrillard We need only take a quick look at the mobile phone market to realize that brand recognition is more important than the technological information of functionality; Apple has been particularly successful through their de sign strategies, creating hype around their products, most notably the iPhone and iPad.
A strong consumer demand is created through this, built less on functionality and more on sign appearance: This slogan is followed in an animated row by six other slogans, the first dealing with its design and the next five with its functionality technical performance, new application features, etc.
These four kinds of sign commodities arguably are indicative of how contemporary media industries work. The second modernity perspective, with its roots in linguistic, anthropological, and post- structuralist theory, and the world perspective in phenomenology need to be brought together and seen as complementary rather than as rivals, as they highlight different aspects of these roles of the media. Or, to phrase it differently, if we cannot consider the institutional power relations in conjunction with the specificities of both technological and — 15 — communicative form, and if these cannot be related to the subjective apprehensions of media users and producers, we have little chance of capturing the complexities of late modern media cultures and societies.
First, I have discussed the institutional perspective, with its mainly causal explanatory approach, leaning towards a linear, transmission perspective, based in an historical view that could be described as close to a modernization perspective. As the focus is on the impact of the media as an institution affecting social processes, it mainly theorizes the media as a phenomenon that works on social institutions from the outside.
This is mediatization as institutional impact, and the logic emphasized is that of the institution. Second, I have accounted for the technological perspective, which is based in linguistics, structural anthropology, semiotics, and Marxism, arguing that we have now entered a second modernity, and emphasizing the play of signifiers, sign value, and a media and cultural production process marked by signifying practices.
The historical view is not necessarily linear, although there are also strong such influences. The role of the media in this perspective is on the level of form, and concerns how it provides a code that is decisive for the quality and character of communication. This is mediatization as communicative quality. The logic forefronted is that of the sign, and the impact of signification and difference. The first and second perspectives are both centred on a specific, processual view on history.
In the first case linearity and causality are emphasized, while the second approach, in line with its post-structuralist influences, forefronts the break with previous historical developments. But this is also a perspective informed by linear thinking, as you can only introduce a break if there is a previously formed, continuous succession of events.
However, both have very little to say about individual action, the dynamics of media use, or the consequences of perception on the structural matrixes that form our cultures and societies. Third, I have pointed to the media as world perspective, rooted in phenomenology and social constructionism, and with a clearer, integrative approach to the relationship between media, culture, and society.
It shares with the second perspective an emphasis on the production and sharing of meaning, but is less post- structural and rather rooted in constructionist approaches and the will to overcome the micro—macro divide in theory. If there is a logic emphasized — and it should be stressed that the concept of logic fits less well within this paradigm — it is to be found in the interplay between a logic of relations and a logic of the social, of action.
Within the world perspective the interpretive actions of human subjects are acknowledged, and contrary to post-structural sign theories, whereby meaning is produced as an effect of signification, the world perspective has a sensitivity to the range of interpretations made, all resulting from the variations in different experiences of the human subjects.
These are all approaches that have tried to overcome some of the problems that at the bottom line can be traced back to the classical tensions in the philosophy of science: They are, of course, not solved by the arguments above, but their reappearance is constantly provoked by — 16 — the continuously new constellations and relational conditions of the media, culture, and society.
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