The Relationship Between Performance Appraisal and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: The Mediating Role of Organizational Commitment. Abstract: The. To Study the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Employee The managers in the organization use the feedback process to get a better picture. Citation: Paul SO, Olumuyiwa FO, Esther OA () Modelling the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Organizational Productivity in Nigerian.
Due to the innumerable variations possible in the Degree Feedback and Appraisals, and its potency as a competency identification and development tool, it is important to understand the process and its dynamics. He suggested that it is not the procedural fairness that interacts with the outcome favorability but rather it is the degree of trust resulting from procedural fairness of others that interacts with outcome favorability to influence employee support.
Coens and Jenkins suggest that performance appraisal is a mandated process in which, for a specified period of time, all or a group of an employee's work behaviors or traits are individually rated, judged, or described by a rater and the results are kept by the organization. Roberts and Reed found evidence of a positive relationship between satisfaction and acceptance of performance appraisal outcomes with employee perceptions that their supervisors encouraged participation, assisted in goal setting and provided frequent feedback.Performance appraisal in hindi
Cobb and Frey studied the effects of procedurally fair leadership and payment outcomes on subordinate reactions to the supervisor. The results indicated that procedurally fair leadership was linked to subordinate perceptions of leader fairness and on their relationships with the leaders.
Subordinates discerned differences in leadership behaviors that enact procedural fairness. These behaviors affected subordinate assessment of supervisor fairness and relationships with the supervisor. The researchers found some evidence that unfair behavior can have negative effects on favorable outcomes. When leaders act unfairly their decisions are seen as unfair even when subordinates benefit from them. Karol considered performance appraisal to include a communication event scheduled between a manager and an employee expressly for the purposes of evaluating that employee's past job performance and discussing relevant areas for future job performance.
He indicated that performance appraisal is an exercise in social perception and cognition embedded in an organizational context requiring both formal and implicit judgment. Bernardin and Beatty suggested that relative measures of the attitudinal kind may ultimately prove to be better measure and predictors of rating validity than such traditional psychometric variables as leniency, halo, and discriminability.
A performance appraisal system can be psychometrically sound in design and construction but still wholly ineffective in practice due to resistance or lack of acceptance on the part of users. Thus, the effectiveness of a system is particularly contingent on the attitudes of the system users, both raters and rates. Landy, Barnes, and Murphy studied employee perceptions of the fairness and accuracy of a performance appraisal system. Research Methodology Research Objectives: To study the impact of perceived fairness of Performance Appraisal on employee performance.
Descriptive research design was used. Analysis of data is done through quantitative method that is numerical figure. Instrument used for data analysis is SPSS 4. In spite of the attention and resources paid to the practice, it continues to generate extreme dissatisfaction among employees and employers alike and is often viewed as inaccurate, unfair, and political [ 24 ]. If the evaluation process makes the employee feel insecure or discouraged this singular feeling may scatter the whole evaluation process between the rater and rate.
Feedback should be given to rates on their overall progress within the organization [ 25 ]. Such feedbacks should not be delayed but should be timely and specific. It is part of the rights of employees to know how they are progressing within the organization in carrying out their duties, tasks and responsibilities [ 9 ] and get feedback in return which should not just be on a yearly basis but also as frequent, timely as possible.
To Study the Relationship between Performance Appraisal and Employee Performance in Telecom Sector
Feedbacks should be provided on a continuous basis- daily, weekly or monthly reviews [ 12 ]. Feedbacks leave room for improved competitive positioning [ 24 ]. If it is done, there is the high possibility of this feedback raising an inner drive within the employee and motivating him to do more or increase his level of commitment to the organization which in turn will lead to an improved and better competitive positioning for an organization.
It was observed from the study of [ 26 ] that the absence of feedback mechanism generate job dissatisfaction among employees as they see the system as ineffective and unfair. Studies on performance appraisal are no longer a new topic in the Human resource management practices and philosophies BUT in spite of the attention and resources paid to the practice, it continues to generate extreme dissatisfaction among employees and employers.
Basically, the research work aims at providing answers to the following questions which are: In what ways has reward significantly influence the commitment of employees? How has promotion affected the productivity of workers in Nigerian public sectors? To what extent has the role of feedback improve the organizations competitive positioning? To what extent has managerial decision influenced the productivity of an employee in the public sector?
The Effects of Performance Appraisal on Organizational Performance | index-art.info
Research hypotheses The following hypotheses were tested: Reward will not have effect on the commitment of employees. Promotion does not have any significant effect on labour productivity.
Giving feedback will not improve competitive advantage. Literature Review Also explained that one of the key determining factor of performance management and appraisal is employee engagement [ 26 ].
Contributed that the importance of employee engagement cannot be underestimated when the desire of the organization is to improve performance and productivity [ 9 ]. The effectiveness of HR systems is, in part, a task of the degree to which they are matching with both organizational and individual goals. According to [ 27 ], there are a great number of design features that potentially can influence the effectiveness of a performance management system, and many of these have been empirically studied to clarify their impact.
Studies from [ 19151726 ] have shown that the major and prevalent problem confronting personnel appraisal is always the mistake that the rater often commits. Some of the mistakes are halo effects this occurs when a manager appraises the performance of an employee based on a certain characteristicerror of contrast this occurs when the rating of an employee is dependent on the performance of another person doing similar workcentral tendency error this occurs when a rater award all employees average or above average ratingleniency or strictness error leniency occurs when the rater rate all employee high while strictness occurs when all employees are rated lowrecency effect error this occurs when rater allows recent occurrence to influence his judgement of an individual performance and the proximity error this occurs when a rater uses one technique to measure different traits in individual performance.
- Science and Education Publishing
The failure of any of the subordinate to meet the organizational goal is a failure of the manager [ 2 ]. Posited that the manager account for every action of the subordinate [ 1 ].
Performance appraisal and related variables Acclaimed that through personnel research, appraisal of employees should be to discover the weakness of their employeeor why the target productivity levels is not being met and thus use the information to plan future developmental programme such as employee training, possession of better equipment or motivating their workers by providing appropriate leadership style [ 26 ].
If a company is just developing its appraisal system without a baseline performance to reward accordingly, there is likely to be a problem from the side of the employee which will inturn affect the goal of the organization in general. Appraisals are often developed mostly in the public sectors to reward or recognize employee s for a job well done. This kind of motivation for high performers also serve as a challenge for the low performers.
Training Appraisals are done in order to identify the kind and level of employees that are low performers. Training comes in when some employees are found to be deficient in the performance of their duties [ 13 ].
However, both managers and employees of high performance should be continually trained as to be able to provide objective input.
PA and Organizational Performance
Several studies [ 20 ] indicated that employees are often satisfied with jobs only when it affords them the opportunity to apply their skills and abilities, freedom, as well as adequate training and seminars which creates avenues for their enhancement and self-development [ 21 ]. In Nigerian public sectors, employees are given feedback on their level of performance with a realistic period and support in improving their performance through adequate training and developmental programmes.
Promotion It has been a culture in Nigeria public sectors that when appraisal are done, they are often linked with bonuses and not to promotion. Also, it was also observed that appraisal system in the Nigeria public sectors does not always ensure that high performer employees are treated fairly with regard to both the appraisal and resulting promotions. In developing an appraisal system for organizations, management needs to think through pay increases and promotions [ 29 ].
Numerous studies like [ 30 ] pointed that employees get motivated to work when they get frequent promotions after appraisal system in their work place. While some also argued that that factors such as promotion, training and career development, and appreciation and improved work place environment gives employees greater opportunities and this will either directly or indirectly influence their satisfaction on the job.
When high performances are recorded for employees, it must be supported with a basis for pay increases and promotions. However, when developing an appraisal system, the management of the public sectors needs to consider the connection between the appraisal and pay increases or promotions.
Feedback An employee performance appraisal serves as a means for management to evaluate and provides feedback on employee job performance, including steps to improve on their deficiencies as needed. The study of and [ 27 ] have indicated that the feedback mechanism serves as a means of identifying their strengths and weaknesses.
This record of feedback in appraisal can be provided verbally but in many cases, legal experts counsel employers to maintain written records in order to provide themselves with greater legal protections. The use of degree feedback can also be adopted in evaluating the performance of individual.
This degree affords the manager the opportunity to assess the performance of an individual employee through his interaction with different co-workers or departments, external customers, and the employee himself. As a company increases its staff, a more formal system using a written appraisal form developed internally or externally should always be used, with the results of the appraisal being tied to salary feedback on a regular basis so that employees increases or bonuses.
Whether the appraisal is provided verbally or in writing, organization needs to provide consistent can improve their work performance.
The Effects of Performance Appraisal on Organizational Performance
Demotion, Termination, Redeployment, Transfer and Retrenchment A sound performance appraisal mechanism must be directed towards the achievement of every organizational goal [ 1 ].
Performance appraisal in public sectors bring uniformity in evaluation process so treat employees with the capabilities could secure the same rating. In the same vein, it provides information for controlling and carrying out important manpower planning subsystems [ 9 ] like training, demotion, pay increases, termination of employment, redeployment, retrenchment, promotion, etc.