In the late15th century, Portuguese navigators became the first Europeans to visit the country. In October , Nigeria altered its ties with the United Kingdom by proclaiming itself a General Ibrahim Babangida, in August . but serious differences were also observed within states during the two polling dates. socio-cultural and economic relations between India and Nigeria. Using a historical and dictated to some extent the pace of events in that country ( Olusanya 88). . Today, the political and diplomatic relations have fruitfully support for all efforts to dismantle the system of apartheid in South Africa in the s and. South Africa's President Jacob Zuma arrived in Nigeria for a two-day state visit, Africa's two economic giants are trying to patch up their frayed Relations between the two countries fell to a new low last year, . Start today.
Both are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countriesthe African Union and other multilateral organizations. Angola has an embassy in Abuja.
Foreign relations of Nigeria - Wikipedia
Nigeria has an embassy in Luanda. Benin has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Cotonou. Burkina Faso has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Ouagadougou. See Cameroon-Nigeria relations A long-standing border dispute with Cameroon over the potentially oil-rich Bakassi Peninsula was resolved by a decision by the International Court of Justice which granted Cameroon ownership of the region and the signing of the Greentree Agreement which led to the withdrawal of Nigerian troops from Bakassi in and complete administrative control being taken over by Cameroon in August Cameroon has a high commission in Abuja and a consulate-general in Calabar.
See Chad—Nigeria relations Nigeria's economic austerity campaign produced strains with neighbouring states, including Chad. Nigeria expelled several hundred thousand foreign workers, mostly from its oil industry, which faced drastic cuts as a result of declining world oil prices.
At least 30, of those expelled were Chadians. Despite these strains, however, Nigerians had assisted in the halting process of achieving stability in Chad, and both nations reaffirmed their intention to maintain close ties. Chad has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate in Maiduguri. Nigeria has an embassy in N'Djamena. Central African Republic has an embassy in Abuja. Nigeria has an embassy in Bangui. Nigeria has an embassy in Abidjan. DR Congo has an embassy in Abuja.
Nigeria has an embassy in Kinshasa. Egypt has an embassy in Abuja and a consulate-general in Lagos. Nigeria has an embassy in Cairo. Ethiopia has an embassy in Abuja. Arising from the above, Chime and Jimoh in Imobighe, Like the Balewa regime, although the Shagari regime adopted afro- centric and non-alignment policies and also supported decolonization, these were largely more in name than in action.
There was indefensible lack of interest and support for both the regional organization ECOWAS and the continental organization OAU as several instances and activities of the regime attest to this fact Akinboye, Nigeria expelled several hundred thousand aliens and foreign workers, mostly from its oil industry, which forced drastic cuts as a result of declining world oil prices.
At least, 30, of those expelled were Chadians, and more than one million were Ghanaian immigrants http: The Buhari Era - The deepening economic crisis cum the political acrimony and rivalry, reminiscent of the First Republic, again, gave the military, led by Major General Muhammed Buhari, good excuse to topple the Shagari government in December, In Decemberthe Buhari regime announced that Nigeria could no longer afford an activist anti-colonial role in Africa.
Consequently, early inreminiscent of the Shagari era, anotherGhanaian immigrants were, on short notice, expelled from Nigeria by the Buhari administration. This was at a time when Ghana was facing severe drought and economic problems.
This action by the regime further strained relations between the two countries http: The Babangida Era — In August,the Buhari military regime was terminated in a palace coup and this led to the emergence of General Ibrahim Babangida as President military and Commander-in- Chief of the Armed Forces. The Babangida regime launched Nigeria back to the fore front of international relations, though relaxed the hitherto seemingly radical foreign policy posture of the Buhari era.
Subsequently, it adopted economic diplomacy as the thrust of its foreign policy. The regime expended enormous human and material resources to bring about peace in Liberia and other crisis ridden West African countries.
The regime also, made concerted efforts to strengthen co-operation among the South-South developing countries. The administration took deliberate steps to ensure cordial relationship between Nigeria and its immediate neighbours especially Ghana where bilateral relationship was at its lowest ebb.
Foreign relations of Nigeria
The ING headed by Chief Ernest Shonekan the military solution to June 12which was supposed to stem the tide of this political crisis, could hardly found its bearings before it was toppled by its Secretary, General Sani Abacha on November 17, Commenting on the foreign policy posture and initiative of this era, Akinboyelaments: Similarly, the regime should be credited for the restoration of peace in Liberia after about seven years of protracted war.
This eventually led to the emergence of a democratically elected government in Liberia. Its human rights records were sordid and questionable. This situation led to the imposition of limited sanctions and suspension of Nigeria from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The United States also imposed numerous sanctions on Nigeria during the era. The relationship was so bad that at a point, the US Ambassador to Nigeria was recalled for consultations for four months, following the execution of the Ogoni nine on November, The Abubakar Era — The nation was borne weary of military rule. Moreover, the nation was traumatized and overheated by the unresolved annulment of the June 12, presidential election. This era opened a new phase of improved bilateral relations.
As the transition to democracy progressed, the removal of visa restriction, increase high level visits of US officials, discussions of future assistance, and the granting of a vital National Interest certification on counter-narcotic effective in Marchpaved the way for re-establishment of closer ties between the US and Nigeria as a key partner in the region and the continent. In accordance with Nigerian national interest, and realizing too that an in- coming civilian Nigerian government would be unable to sustain the casualties and costs which its military predecessors absorbed without cultivating a broad base of popular political support for the action at home, the transitional government of Abdulsalam Abubakar not only declined to contribute troops to the ECOWAS mission in Guinea-Bissau but began the significant withdrawal of troops from Sierra-Leone.
Abubakar, however, read the minds of Nigerians, especially the on-going national and international clamour for democracy, he was therefore not prepared to hang on to power. He drew up a transition time table and meticulously adhered to it by handing over to a democratically elected government on May 29, Thus he became the second military ruler to willingly hand over power to a democratically elected civilian government in Nigeria.
This was after a period of about twenty years — The Obasanjo Democratic Era- The Obasanjo regime was initially saddled with the enormous responsibility of bringing the country out from the political and economic doldrums and the general international isolation into which the immediate past regimes had plunged the nation.
The regime made it a point of priority to reconnect Nigeria with the international community after its long isolation especially under the Abacha regime. This is evidenced in the series of diplomatic shuttling the regime embarked shortly after its taking over the reins of power and which unfortunately, almost became typical and akin to a hobby of the Obasanjo regime throughout the era.
Not surprising, Abimbola The Nation, February 23, Commenting on the general legacy of the Obasanjo administration of —Abdulsalami Zubairu The Lawmaker, June, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo provided this nation with eight years of cruel leadership… the nightmarish eight years of the Obasanjo administration with his draconian policies and programmes… suffocated the citizenry.
The era generally witnessed an improvement in bilateral relationship on many important policy goals such as regional peace keeping etc. The administration lent a strong diplomatic support to the US government counter-terrorism efforts in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks and played a leading role in forging an anti-terrorism consensus among states in the sub-Saharan Africa.
In bilateral relations, also, Nigeria has forged increasingly significant commercial and diplomatic ties with the emerging global powers of China and India during the era.
Nigeria profile - Timeline - BBC News
The regime also deserves some credit for bringing peace and stability to a nation that was somewhat a pariah in the international community and for successfully, though reluctantly, third term bid? This was the first of its kind in Nigeria since independence. The regime seemed more of a continuation of the ruinous Obasanjo foreign policy posture not withstanding its acclaimed seven point agenda. When the leaders of the world gather in New York last month September, Nigeria was conspicuously absent, its voice unheard in the international theatre where it matters and on issues that matter to the world.
On the position of Nigeria as the giant of Africa under the regime, he further avers: Nigeria that once led other African countries… has now yielded its leadership to them. The nation that once loomed large on the African continent, the giant of Africa, has become a king Pago among African nations.
The nation whose voice was the voice of Africa, now finds itself battling with perforated larynx. Unfortunately, the consensus of international and domestic observers is that the 21 April presidential and legislative polls, as well as the elections for state governors and state legislators on 14 April, were seriously flawed. The degenerating situation in the Niger Delta has also become an embarrassment for Nigeria in the international community such that Nigerians are seen as people that can hardly put their houses in order as to earn the deserved respect of the international community.
The continuous attacks on oil installations, foreign companies and foreign oil workers and the frequent kidnappings by the militants, though an inherited problem from the previous administrations, however assumed a frightening dimension under this era and with the military advocating a political solution rather than a military solution; a position that is at variance with the government position.
A good example of this was the handover of the disputed Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon. In Augustthe Chief of Defence Staff, General Andrew Azazi specifically told the Senate that the military was not consulted on the security implication of ceding the area to Cameroon before government signed the Green Treaty Agreement Newswatch, June 1, Such discordant tunes and stand of the military on national and international issues which usually ran contrary to the Federal Government foreign policy posture are a minus for the administration in this regard.
According to Modupe Ogunbayo Newswatch, June 1, The last three elections in the Fourth Republic have shown clearly that Nigeria needs liberation.
This is the liberation from the cabal of electoral criminals who seized our democracy, turned our elections into a kind of coup against the electorate and is seeing to end the constitutional sovereignty of Nigerians to freely choose their leaders.
Notwithstanding the above shortcomings on the internal plane, the administration deserves credit on its policy of strict observance to the rule of law. This has sufficiently brightens the hitherto timid disposition of the Nigeria judiciary as evidenced in the various recent court verdicts across the country. Giving credence to the above fear and expressing disapproval of the manner the Uwais electoral reform report is being treated, a former military Head of state, General Muhammed Buhari, Newswatch, August 17, The way things are going, we are not likely going to see the electoral reforms of our dreams.
Agbese Newswatch, August 17, I fear that things are beginning to turn ugly and worrisome. However, that the administration acknowledged the fact that a credible electoral system to conform to international standard is a prerequisite for gaining international acceptance and respect, and therefore making effort in this direction at all is yet a credit to the administration.
Nigeria profile - Timeline
The above is premised on the fact that the achievement of the former rule of law is predicated on the existence of the latter free and fair elections. The rule of law cannot exist without a functional and integrated electoral system.
Today nothing has changed much. It is not arguable that the kind of leaders a nation gets determines the direction it goes. For nearly 50 years, our nation has groped in the dark — without any sign of change. Change, which is dynamic, emanates from a deep conviction on the part of the people not to be taken for a ride. Unfortunately, and surprising too, the Nigerian people have allowed themselves to be fooled several times by forces of confusion and treachery. During this era, like some of its predecessors, Nigeria has taken the lead in articulating the views of developing nations on the need for modification of the existing international economic order.
The hydrocarbon sector accounts for over 90 percent Pham, All said and done, and as Chime in Imobighe, The political wind of change which ushered in independence brought in remarkable changes. However, the character of the Nigerian state and indeed the emerging leadership remained much as it was in the colonial era.