Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology? - ppt video online download
Look up lexicology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lexicology. Another difference between the practical and the The morphological characteristics specify the break up. Morphology is the description given to the structure of a languages morphemes and of the study of words as well as their link to written texts and dictionaries.
The common concern of both of them is 'word' or the lexical unit of a language. Lexicology is derived from lexico 'word' plus logos 'learning or science' i.
Lexicography is lexico 'word' plus graph 'writing' i. The etymological meaning of these words speaks for itself the scope of these branches of linguistics.
Lexicology is the science of the study of word whereas lexicography is the writing of the word in some concrete form i.
As we shall see later, lexicology and lexicography are very closely related, rather the latter is directly dependent on the former and may be called applied lexicology. As already noted, both lexicology and lexicography have a common subject 'word'. The sum total of all the words of a language forms the vocabulary or lexical system of a language.
The words of a language are like constellations of stars in the firmament. Every word although having its own independent entity is related to others both paradigmatically and syntagmatically.
Lexicology - Wikipedia
The paradigmatic relations are based on the interdependence of words within the lexical system. The syntagmatic relations show the relation of words in the patterns of arrangement.
In other words the vocabulary of a language is not a chaos of diversified phenomena but consists of elements which, though independent, are related in some way.
A word has a particular meaning, it has a particular group of sounds, and a particular grammatical function. As such it is a semantic, phonological and grammatical unit. Lexicology studies a word in all these aspects i. Words undergo constant change in their form and meaning and lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language in terms of its origin, development and current use.
The study of the interrelationship of lexical units is done in terms of the contrasts and similarities existing between them. As a word does not occur in isolation, lexicology studies it with its combinative possibilities. And thus the scope of lexicology includes the study of phraseological units, set combinations etc. Like general linguistics, of which lexicology is a branch, lexicology can be both historical and descriptive, the former dealing with the origin and development of the form and meaning of the lexical units in a particular languages across time and the latter studying the vocabulary of a language as a system at a particular point of time.
But there are many areas in lexicology, where one cannot be studied in isolation, without regard to the other.
They are, thus, interdependent. The lexicological studies can be of two types, viz. General lexicology is concerned with the general features of words common to all languages. It deals with something like universals in language. Special lexicology on the other hand studies the words with reference to one particular language. Lexicological studies can be, further, of comparative and contrastive type wherein the lexical systems of two languages are studies from a contrastive point of view.
Lexicology fulfills the needs of different branches of applied linguistics, viz. As the vocabulary or the lexical system of a language forms a system of the language as other systems, its study in lexicology should not be separated from the other constituents of the system. So lexicology is closely related to phonetics and grammar. The relation between phonetics and lexicology is very important. Words consist of phonemes, which, although not having meaning of their own, serve in formation of morphemes, the level where meaning is expressed.
So they serve to distinguish between meanings. Moreover, meaning itself is indispensable for phonemic analysis. Historical phonetics helps in the study of polysemy, homonymy and synonymy.
The link between lexicology and grammar is also very close. Each word has a relation in the grammatical system of a language and belongs to some parts of speech.
Lexicology studies this relationship in terms of the grammatical meanings as also their relationship with the lexical meaning. In the field of word formation, lexicology is still more closely related to grammar. Both study the patterns of word formation. Language is a social phenomenon. The study of language cannot be divorced from the study of the social system and the development in society. The development and progress in the social, political and technological system is manifest in the vocabulary of a language.
New words are introduced and old words die out. New meanings are added to words and old meanings are dropped out. Lexicology studies the vocabulary of a language from the sociological points also.
Lexicology And lexicography
Lexicography also studies the lexicon as lexicology does but "whereas lexicology concentrates more on general properties and features that can be viewed as systematic, lexicography typically has the so to say individuality of each lexical unit in the focus of its interest".
Lexicography has been generally defined as the writing or compiling1 of a lexicon or dictionary, the art or practice of writing dictionaries or the science of methods of compiling dictionaries.
The word was used as early as In lexicology the word is studied as a part of the system. In lexicography it is studied as an individual unit in respect of its meaning and use from the practical point of its use by the reader of the dictionary for learning the language or comprehending texts in it or for any other purpose like checking correct spelling, pronunciation etc. A word may have different and varied characteristic, all of which may not be needed by a lexicographer.
His work is guided more by the purpose of the dictionary and the type of the audience. He presents the words of the lexical system in a way so as to make it more practically useable in real life situation i. For example lexicology may give the theoretical basis for enumerating different meanings of a polysemous word, but how these meanings are worded and presented in the dictionary is governed by the practical problems of utility of the dictionary for different types of readers.
The aim of lexicology is to study the vocabulary of a language as a system, so the treatment of individual units may not claim to be complete because the number of units is very larger. Its goal is systematization in the study as a whole but not completeness as regards individual units. So it cannot claim to be a perfectly systematic treatment. Here, every entry is treated as an independent problem. Lexicologists present their material in sequence according to their view of the study of vocabulary.
The lexicographers are mostly guided by the principle of convenience in retrieval of the data and arrange words usually in alphabetical order. Lexicology provides the theoretical basis of lexicography. The lexicographer although knowing all the semantic details of a lexical unit might, at times, have to take such decisions and include such features in the definition which might be his own observations.
In lexicology the study of words is objective, governed by the theories of semantics and word formation. There is no scope for individual aberrations. In lexicography, in spite of all the best attempts on the part of the lexicographer, many a definition become subjective, i.
General lexicology deals with the universal features of the words of languages. In this sense lexicology is not language specific, whereas lexicography is more or less language specific in spite of its universal theoretical background.
Its theories have no other validation except for practical applicability in the compilation of a dictionary. Whereas lexicology is more theory oriented, lexicography is more concerned with concrete application i. So "in a certain sense lexicography may be considered a superior discipline to lexicology, for results are more important than intentions and the value of theoretical principles must be estimated according to results".
Lexicography is the science and art of compiling dictionary. The word 'dictionary' was first used as Dictionarius in this sense in the 13th century by an English man John Garland. The word Dictionarium was used in the 14th century.
- Part I: Introduction
For a medieval scholar a dictionary was a collection of diction or phrases put together for the use of pupils studying Latin. One of the purposes of dictionary in medieval times was glossing texts and employing synonyms for them.
Dictionaries are prepared to serve different practical needs of the people. A reader looks at the dictionary mainly from the following points of view: This is the legislative or the court house function of the dictionary2. Johnson described the lexicographer as "a writer of dictionaries. Little did he realize at that time that his dictionary would, for almost a century, serve as the 'Bible' of the English language, the second function noted above.
Besides these a dictionary also serves as a clearing house of information. In order that these functions be performed adequately, the information in the dictionaries should be collected from as many sources as possible, and should be authentic and easily retrievable. Lexicography in this way is an applied science.
Lexicography is not only related to linguistics but is an applied discipline under it. The practical problems of lexicography are solved by the application of the researches of linguistic works. As we shall see below, in his entire work from the selection of entries, fixation of head words, the definition of words to the arrangement of meanings and entries, the lexicographer is helped by the work of different branches of linguistics.
One of the most widely accepted criteria for selection of entries in many dictionaries is usually frequency count.
Introduction to Morphology and lexicology Unit 1: What is lexicology?
The frequency of head words the lexicographer usually chooses the canonical or the most frequently occurring form of a word. This is found out from the grammatical study of the language. For written languages and languages with established grammatical traditions the problem of selection of the head word is not so difficult as in the case of unwritten languages.
Several kinds of lexicology are identified such as general lexicology, special lexicology, contrastive lexicology, historical lexicology, or etymology, and descriptive lexicology.What is LEXICON? What does LEXICON mean? LEXICON meaning & definition - How to pronounce LEXICON?
General lexicology, being a part of general linguistics, studies vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language and the meaning of words and word-combinations in isolation and in context. Special lexicology studies words and word-combinations, and describes the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language.
It is a part of general lexicology. Contrastive lexicology studies the relations between etymologically related words and word-combinations in different languages. It deals with the contrastive analysis of the lexicon, lexico-semantic relationships, thesauri of entire vocabularies, classification of lexical hierarchies, and taxonomic structure of specialized terminology. Descriptive lexicology studies the lexicon and lexico-semantic relationships of a certain language at a given stage of its development.
Comparatists and neogrammarians of the nineteenth century believed that linguistic science is just the study of the evolution and comparison of languages.
Ferdinand de Saussure opposed this view, stating that scientific methods are applicable to the descriptive and the historical study of language, and since then, two main approaches have been applied to the study of language material: Synchronic or static or descriptive studies deal with the make-up of the language, its words, combinations, and lexico-semantic relationships at a given moment of time, while diachronic or evaluative, or historical studies deal with the transformations the lexicon undergoes in the course of time.
Lexicology is closely related to phonology, which studies what sounds a language has and how these sounds combine to form words; to syntax, which studies how words can be combined into sentences; and semantics, which is the study of the meanings of words and sentences.
Mostly, lexicology studies words and word-combinations.