Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? (for Teens)
The hormone is central to both the development of the disease and its treatment. As insulin does its work and cells gobble up glucose, blood glucose levels. The relationship between glucose and insulin levels was examined in a Adult; Analysis of Variance; Blood Glucose/metabolism*; Chi-Square Distribution. How Your Body Uses Glucose and Insulin. About Insulin and High Blood Glucose . Diabetes is a problem with your body t hat causes blood.
Excess glucose not used by cells is converted to glycogen, which is stored in the liver. Figure 1 demonstrates the interplay between glucose and insulin levels. Superimposed on the graph, the red and blue dotted and solid lines represent what happens during a meal rich in either simple sucrose or more complex starchy carbohydrates.
How Insulin Works with Glucose | Kaiser Permanente Washington
Having a certain amount of sugar in the bloodstream is necessary. Otherwise, cells would have no fuel. If blood glucose levels fall too low, another hormone, glucagon, works to increase blood sugar levels. Glucagon, also made by the pancreas, causes the liver to break down glycogen stores. Breakdown of glycogen results in glucose, which is added to the bloodstream to help bring blood glucose levels back to normal.
How insulin and glucagon work to regulate blood sugar levels
The interplay between blood sugar, insulin, and glycogen is diagrammed in Figure 2. The requested supplement was not found. Figure 2 People with diabetes mellitus have difficulty regulating their blood glucose levels. People with Type 1 diabetes also known as juvenile diabetes have a condition in which their pancreatic tissue makes minimal insulin, if any. If someone with Type 1 diabetes does not have help from pharmaceutical insulin replacements, glucose is not cleared from the blood and never enters the cells.
The cells are unable to obtain energy, and instead, the body undergoes ketoacidosis, where fat and muscle tissues are broken down to provide an energy source to cells instead. The hormone travels around the body in the blood, signaling to cells all over that soup's on and it's time to let glucose in.
Insulin is the "key" that opens the cells to glucose. As insulin does its work and cells gobble up glucose, blood glucose levels begin to fall. The beta cells detect this drop in blood glucose and taper off the flow of insulin. This ensures that the glucose in the blood will plateau at a healthy level and not go too low.
The absence of insulin in the blood is also a signal that the body hasn't eaten for a while and should tap fat stores instead of glucose for its energy needs. Though its job is being a hormone, insulin is also a protein, manufactured by the body using information written in the genes. The beta cells are the only cells in the body with the natural capacity to make insulin.
This specialization means that the beta cells are the body's last and only hope for regulating blood glucose levels on its own.
Insulin in Diabetes Diabetes develops when the beta cells fail to produce enough insulin to keep blood glucose levels in a healthy range.
In type 1 diabetesthe beta cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system gone haywire. In type 2cells are resistant to insulin, and the beta cells fail to produce enough of the hormone to compensate. The goal of diabetes treatment is to normalize blood glucose levels by either increasing levels of insulin in the body or sensitizing the body to insulin. All people with type 1 and some with type 2 require treatment with insulin to control blood glucose.
- What is Insulin?
- How Insulin Works
- Normal Regulation of Blood Glucose
There are two basic kinds of insulin used to manage diabetes: Mealtime insulin works fast and, as the name suggests, is taken just before eating to deal with the subsequent surge in blood glucose as food is digested.
Background insulin is usually taken once a day and keeps blood glucose down between meals.
Insulin and glucagon: Health, regulation, and issues caused by diabetes
While both mealtime and background insulins are essentially the same protein, almost identical to the version made by the body, the medicines are formulated differently in the lab to speed or slow their absorption, respectively. Oral medications for type 2 diabetes work by either boosting the production of insulin by the beta cells or making the body less resistant to insulin.
Insulin can't be taken orally because, as a protein, it would be destroyed by digestive enzymes.