A sizeable literature now links GBV and HIV index-art.info violence can lead to HIV infection directly, as trauma increases the risk of transmission. Jul 24, Gender-based Violence and HIV/AIDS: A Rwandan Project Confronts the Connection to HIV infection, partially due to early sexual activity, relationships For women, the agency to prevent and control life-damaging. Aug 4, Sunday on the links between gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS. in terms of acknowledging the effects of the AIDS epidemic on women.
It's time to talk about violence. And that is because of the high rates of gender-based and intimate partner violence aimed at women, and the way in which it greatly exacerbates HIV risk.
Women and girls who have experienced violence have a substantially increased risk of HIV infection, a risk that is both increased directly through sexual violence or indirectly through increased risky behavior or inability to negotiate safer-sex practices with a partner.
Women abuse survivors are in double jeopardy, as well: Consider these stats of women in the U. Reports show the numbers of post-positive violence is even higher in African countries where stigma and misinformation are commonplace. Indeed, internationally the numbers are even worse. In the last decade, wide-scale studies across Asia and Africa have shown women who experience violence from male partners are significantly more likely to be infected with HIV.
In some African countries, intimate partner violence is around 48 percent; the mortality rate from IPV in South Africa is double that of the U. In South Africa, 44 percent of men admit to physical violence against their female partners, and intimate partner violence is so common that in one study, a majority of high school students surveyed in the country said they did not consider forced intercourse a crime.
But surely, you may say, violence is just one risk factor among many.
Linkages between HIV/AIDS and GBV
If you look at the risk factors like drug use and sex work and so on, you'll see many, if not all, can be linked back to childhood abuse, sexual assault, or domestic partner violence. For example, women who experience gender-based violence are more likely to report risk factors like unprotected sex, IV drug use, and alcohol abuse. Studies in Rwanda and Tanzania — in fact study after study since — show that HIV-positive women were more likely to report a history of physical violence, sexual coercion, or gender inequality because women subjected to those forms of violence are less likely to request condom use, more likely to have partners who have risky sex behaviors outside their relationship, and more likely to have genital tract injuries associated with sexual violence which increase HIV susceptibility.
And once those women seroconvert and are HIV-positive, they are less likely to get treatment, more likely to go off their medication, and to miss health care appointments.
Even in the U. The only way the doctors were able to make that breakthroughs is because the mother had stopped getting care for her own HIV for a time and finally came back to the doctor for the sake of the child.
Gender-Based Violence Increases Risk of HIV/AIDS for Women in Sub-Saharan Africa
Men are the root of the problem and men must be a part of the solution. We cannot solve this without them.
And violence is a problem. While there are a number of things we need to do, the first is to include men in the solution. The links between violence, inequality, and risky behavior are clear, but more must be done to find ways to reduce each of them.
Research on working men in South Africa, married men in India, and men in methadone treatment programs here in New York who admitted to being perpetrators of intimate partner violence found that this disparate group of men were all far more likely to report multiple sexual partners, thus increasing their risk for HIV, and some researchers have postulated that abusive men are more likely than non-abusers to be HIV positive or to be infected with co-factors like genital herpes, which make women more vulnerable to HIV transmission.
She is a mother to two children and has experienced gender-based violence.
She uses drugs and sometimes sells sex. The most obvious one is the direct risk of HIV transmission caused by sexual violence and rape. Another direct link between gender-based violence and HIV is HIV diagnosis and disclosure acting as a trigger for different forms of violence against women living with HIV. This can include, but is not limited to, intimate partner violence and violence in healthcare systems, such as the forced or coerced sterilization of women living with HIV.
Gender inequality links gender-based violence and HIV as one of two indirect pathways that have even greater impact on HIV transmission than the direct pathways. In societies where patriarchy and unequal gender norms are deeply entrenched, men are more likely to perpetrate sexual violence, pay for sex, and are less likely to use condoms.
To prevent HIV we must end gender-based violence - International HIV/AIDS Alliance.
Intimate partner violence is also an indirect risk factor for HIV acquisition, as women who experience intimate partner violence have more mental health issues, including depression and anxiety, higher use of alcohol and less control over their sexual decisions. The matrix is adapted from the Gender at Work Analytical Framework.
Workshop participants shared examples of successful approaches to recognise and address gender-based violence.