Relationship Between Cycling Mechanics and Core Stability | Freddie Fu - index-art.info
Lephart, and F.H. Fu. Relationship between cycling mechanics and core stability. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(4) —Core stability has received. Core muscle strengthening, cycling performance, Pressure Biofeedback Unit ( PBU), computerised .. would result in altered cycling mechanics and pedal force (Abt et al., ). .. This relationship to cycling biomechanics will be discussed. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cycling mechanics and core stability. It was hypothesized that diminishing.
The core not only provides stability to the spine while controlling movement at the torso, but also A within-subject, repeated measures design was used to affords greater leverage for upper and lower extremity determine changes in lower extremity joint kinematics motion and force development 9. Subjects reported for 3 sessions 1 training, 2 test- from which force is generated The core muscles ing throughout the study.
Sessions were separated by a maintain the neutral pelvic position on the bike when the minimum of 1 week to ensure full recovery and prevent anterior and posterior muscle components are equally potential confounding results on subsequent tests.
On the basis of orientation and attachment of tial training session was provided to introduce subjects to the psoas muscle on the lumbar spine, pelvic stabilization testing methods.
Subjects performed an incremental and resistance to fatigue are critical to maintain the nat- ramp cycling protocol during test 1. Test 2 required the ural curve of the spine as well as provide the leverage subjects to complete a precore fatigue isokinetic test, core from which the psoas and gluteal muscles contract when fatigue workout, postcore fatigue isokinetic test, and a a greater power output is required 8.
Although the lack repeat of the incremental ramp protocol performed during of core stability would appear to have the greatest influ- test 1. Coefficient of variation for pedal Fifteen competitive cyclists age: Coefficient of variation for work study.
Subjects were members of local road cycling teams data has been previously determined within our labora- with a road race classification of category 2—4 on the basis tory to be Subjects were provided a minute warm-up Subjects who reported a history of musculoskeletal injury before data collection. The treadmill protocol for test 1 within the previous 3 months or participated in a core and test 2 consisted of riding untethered on a high-speed strengthening program 2 or more times per week for 6 treadmill at Subjects were required to maintain the same gear ratio, cadence, and hand position throughout the test Procedures while remaining seated.
A total of 7 pedal cycles were Training Session. Subjects were provided a separate collected during the final 30 seconds of each stage, with training session to become familiar with the testing pro- the middle 3 trials being used for data analysis. This would be mining the changes in torque, work, and power after the the gear ratio that subjects would ride during the testing exercise circuit.
Subjects were seated in an upright posi- sessions. One the edge of the seat of the chair. The torso rotation at- week after the training session, subjects reported for test tachment was aligned with the long axis of the spine and 1. Practice trials were pro- each subject. Spherical reflective markers diameter vided to ensure patient understanding and familiarity.
Relationship between cycling mechanics and core stability. - Semantic Scholar
Right and left rotational data aspect of the pedal in line with the pedal spindle and were averaged for peak torque, total work, average pow- approximately 4. Raw coordinate data were collected with the Peak Mo- torque per repetition. Subjects performed a 32 ViconPeak Inc. Each subject uct Division, Sunnyvale, CA. Dependent kinematic var- completed 4 consecutive sets of the exercise circuit, per- iables included total frontal and sagittal plane motion of forming each exercise for 40 seconds and resting for 20 the hip and knee and total sagittal plane motion of the seconds.
The exercise circuit consisted of the following ex- ankle.
Intraclass correlation coefficients ICCs and stan- ercises: A local coordinate sys- tigue of the core musculature. On completion of the post- tem was created on the bicycle, with the origin positioned exercise isokinetic test, subjects performed a second in- on the seat tube, 5 cm inferior to the seat tube—top tube cremental cycling treadmill test as described for test 1. Two additional markers were positioned on the Data Reduction. Raw coordinate data were filtered down tube at the same vertical height as the origin mark- with a fourth-order Butterworth filter with an optimal er and the center of the head tube.
The local y-axis was cutoff frequency 7. All of the kinematic calculations calculated as the vector between the seat tube and down were performed in the Kincalc module of the Peak Motus tube markers, whereas the x-axis was formed by the vec- software package and based on Vaughan et al. Raw tor between the seat tube and head tube markers. The force data were filtered with a fourth-order Butterworth cross product of the x- and y-axes was used to calculate filter with an optimal cutoff frequency 7.
The filtered the z-axis. Dependent variables included power phase ef- coordinate and analog data were then exported to a cus- fective force, recovery phase effective force, total gross tom-designed LabView version 6; National Instruments, work, total net work, positive work, and negative work.
Austin, TX program to calculate the joint kinematic and Power phase was defined as the time period that corre- pedal force data of interest.
Relationship between cycling mechanics and core stability.
Precore fatigue and postcore fatigue isokinetic torso rotation data. Test 1—test 2 kinematic data. Test 1—test 2 pedal force and work data.Emma's 6 Core Stability Exercises For Cyclists - Beginner Core Workout
The effective Negative work J Total frontal plane knee motion and total ative work were initially calculated as the area under the sagittal plane knee and ankle motion increased Net work was Gross work was calculated as the sum of the ab- matic data are presented in Table 2. No significant differences were demonstrated for any pedal force or work data.
Pedal force and work data are Statistical Analyses presented in Table 3. The maximum repetition total work, and average peak torque results of this study only partially supported our hypoth- per repetition after the core fatigue workout. Specifically, several of the kinematic variables were dependent t-tests were used to examine kinematic total altered after the core fatigue workout, whereas the pedal frontal and sagittal plane motion of the hip and knee and force and work variables remained unchanged.
Collec- total sagittal plane motion of the ankle and force power tively, these results would suggest compensatory kine- phase effective force, recovery phase effective force, total matic adaptations to maintain a given power output. Considering the fixed pelvis and feet positions, the knee acts as the ful- RESULTS crum of the thigh and shank, at which point excessive A significant decrease Cycling mechanics typ- work, average power, maximal repetition total work, and ically involve a pistonlike, symmetrical motion of the legs average peak torque was demonstrated after the core fa- for power generation and smooth rolling transition be- tigue workout, confirming the effect of the core fatigue tween the contact points of the patellofemoral joint 4, 5.
Isokinetic torso rotational data Disrupted tracking of the patella could result in wearing are presented in Table 1. As identified in this al. The fixed speed and gear ratio within and between er valgus positioning toward the top tube. The subjects tests might have negated the likelihood of finding signif- also displayed a combination of greater total sagittal icance with the pedaling force data. Traditional resistance exercises have been modified to emphasize core stability.
Such modifications have included performing exercises on unstable rather than stable surfaces, performing exercises while standing rather than seated, performing exercises with free weights rather than machines, and performing exercises unilaterally rather than bilaterally. Despite the popularity of core stability training, relatively little scientific research has been conducted to demonstrate the benefits for healthy athletes.
Based on the current literature, prescription of core stability exercises should vary based on the phase of training and the health status of the athlete.
During preseason and in-season mesocycles, free weight exercises performed while standing on a stable surface are recommended for increases in core strength and power.
Free weight exercises performed in this manner are specific to the core stability requirements of sports-related skills due to moderate levels of instability and high levels of force production. Conversely, during postseason and off-season mesocycles, Swiss ball exercises involving isometric muscle actions, small loads, and long tension times are recommended for increases in core endurance. Furthermore, balance board and stability disc exercises, performed in conjunction with plyometric exercises, are recommended to improve proprioceptive and reactive capabilities, which may reduce the likelihood of lower extremity injuries.
A recent study in the National Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research outlined the importance of core training for cyclists.
The purpose of the study was to determine whether cycling mechanics are affected by core stability. The foundation behind core training for cyclists is that pelvic stabilization maintains a natural curvature of the spine. The core is defined as the collection of primary stabilizing muscles for both the front and the back of the pelvis and lower back.