How are DNA, chromosomes, genes, and alleles related? | Socratic
Sex chromosomes determine the differences between males and females. This discovery was a significant step in understanding the relationship among the. Chromosome is the vehicle on which genes reside. The number of genes present on each chromosome depends on its size and length. Gene is a portion of. What's the difference between Allele and Gene? Chromosomes occur in pairs so organisms have two alleles for each gene — one allele in each chromosome.
This binding compresses the long DNA molecules so that they fit within a cell. Humans contain 23 pairs of chromosomes, and if you unwound all the DNA from a human cell and placed it end to end, it would exceed six feet in length. During cell division, a cell replicates its complement of chromosomes so that each daughter sell gets the full diploid set.
Sciencing Video Vault Genes and Alleles Genes appear throughout the length of each chromosome, and each chromosome pair has a unique set of genes. You can only recognize genes from their information content -- the sequence of nucleotide bases.
Otherwise, genes are indistinguishable from the rest of the chromosome. The site of a gene on a chromosome is its locus. You can designate a locus by counting the number of bases from the beginning of the chromosome to the start of the gene.
In a diploid organism, the two corresponding genes in a chromosome pair, or alleles, might be identical or might have different base sequences. It actually can play a functional or a structural role. In fact there are theories that the earliest life, the most primitive life was nothing but self replicating RNA and then the systems became more, and more, and more complicated and complex until eventually you end up with things like redwood trees and hippopotami.
- Alleles and genes
- Genetic inheritance
Elephants, but whatever else, but it all started with potentially self replicating RNA. Some people say it might be some type of proteins are able to replicate, who knows, but RNA is definitely, is definitely an interesting character in this. So each of these Genes they can code for a type of protein or even a functional RNA. That's what a Gene is. Now what about an Allele?Difference between DNA, Gene and Chromosome
When the Allele is a specific variation of the Gene. So for example, let's say that you look at the at the same stretch of DNA.
We're both human beings and we have for the most part very similar DNA. So this is-- Actually let me straighten it out. Now we're both human beings and most of our genetic material is fairly similar, but we might have variations in how this Gene is coded.
Alleles definition & allele vs gene comparison (video) | Khan Academy
For example, you might have or I might have a let's say, I have a an Adenine right there, but right at that exact spot you might have a different base. You might have a, I don't know, you might have a, you might have-- Actually let me just-- You might have a Thymine right over there. So it's encoding for a protein, or you know, functional RNA that's playing the same role. Maybe it has a role in the immune system or role in your skin color or role in how your brain develops, but there's a variation.
There's a variation in how it's coded. Now some of these variations which could arise through mutations, it might not have any impact in the function of the eventual protein that gets constructed.
You might just have a different Amino Acid sometimes. In fact, you might not even have a different Amino Acid because many times you have two Codons coding for the same Amino Acid, but even in a case you might have one different Amino Acid in a protein that has 4, Amino Acids it doesn't change how that protein acts or how it functions.
Or sometimes it might.
It might change how that protein functions. Some characteristics are controlled by a single gene, such as fur in animals and red-green colour blindness in humans. Each gene might have different forms, and these are called alleles.
What Is the Relationship Between a Chromosome & an Allele? | Sciencing
The diagram shows the relationship between the cell, its nucleus, chromosomes in the nucleus, and genes. Chromosomes are made from genes which are made from the DNA double helix Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a body cell in pairs. One chromosome of each pair is inherited from the mother and the other one is inherited from the father. The chromosome in each pair carries the same gene in the same location.
How are DNA, chromosomes, genes, and alleles related?
These genes could be the same, or different versions: Alleles are different versions of the same gene. For example, the gene for eye colour has an allele for blue eye colour and an allele for brown eye colour.
For any gene, a person may have the same two alleles, known as homozygous or two different ones, known as heterozygous.