Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development | Simply Psychology
The classical theories of the relation between language and thought in developmental of the simultaneously emerging cognitive abilities noted by Piaget. Oct 15, Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development suggests that learn a great deal about language from the people with whom they they interact. Oct 28, Piaget proposed that cognitive development from infant to young adult . Another aspect of language development involves private speech.
Pre-operational stage from age 2 to age 7 3. Concrete operational stage from age 7 to age 11 4. Each child goes through the stages in the same order, and child development is determined by biological maturation and interaction with the environment. Although no stage can be missed out, there are individual differences in the rate at which children progress through stages, and some individuals may never attain the later stages.
Piaget did not claim that a particular stage was reached at a certain age - although descriptions of the stages often include an indication of the age at which the average child would reach each stage.
Sensorimotor Stage Birth-2 yrs The main achievement during this stage is object permanence - knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden. It requires the ability to form a mental representation i. Preoperational Stage years During this stage, young children can think about things symbolically. This is the ability to make one thing - a word or an object - stand for something other than itself.
Thinking is still egocentricand the infant has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. Concrete Operational Stage years Piaget considered the concrete stage a major turning point in the child's cognitive development because it marks the beginning of logical or operational thought. This means the child can work things out internally in their head rather than physically try things out in the real world. Children can conserve number age 6mass age 7and weight age 9. Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes.
Formal Operational Stage 11 years and over The formal operational stage begins at approximately age eleven and lasts into adulthood. During this time, people develop the ability to think about abstract concepts, and logically test hypotheses. Educational Implications Piaget did not explicitly relate his theory to education, although later researchers have explained how features of Piaget's theory can be applied to teaching and learning.
Piaget has been extremely influential in developing educational policy and teaching practice.
The result of this review led to the publication of the Plowden report Discovery learning — the idea that children learn best through doing and actively exploring - was seen as central to the transformation of the primary school curriculum. Readiness concerns when certain information or concepts should be taught. According to Piaget's theory children should not be taught certain concepts until they have reached the appropriate stage of cognitive development. According to Piagetassimilation and accommodation require an active learner, not a passive one, because problem-solving skills cannot be taught, they must be discovered.
Within the classroom learning should be student-centered and accomplished through active discovery learning. The role of the teacher is to facilitate learning, rather than direct tuition.
Therefore, teachers should encourage the following within the classroom: He was an inspiration to many who came after and took up his ideas. Piaget's ideas have generated a huge amount of research which has increased our understanding of cognitive development.
His ideas have been of practical use in understanding and communicating with children, particularly in the field of education re: Criticisms Are the stages real? Vygotsky and Bruner would rather not talk about stages at all, preferring to see development as a continuous process.
Others have queried the age ranges of the stages.
Some studies have shown that progress to the formal operational stage is not guaranteed. Because Piaget concentrated on the universal stages of cognitive development and biological maturation, he failed to consider the effect that the social setting and culture may have on cognitive development. Dasen cites studies he conducted in remote parts of the central Australian desert with year old Aborigines.
He gave them conservation of liquid tasks and spatial awareness tasks. However, he found that spatial awareness abilities developed earlier amongst the Aboriginal children than the Swiss children.
Such a study demonstrates cognitive development is not purely dependent on maturation but on cultural factors too — spatial awareness is crucial for nomadic groups of people. Vygotskya contemporary of Piaget, argued that social interaction is crucial for cognitive development. According to Vygotsky the child's learning always occurs in a social context in co-operation with someone more skillful MKO.
This social interaction provides language opportunities and language is the foundation of thought. Piaget made careful, detailed naturalistic observations of children, and from these he wrote diary descriptions charting their development. He also used clinical interviews and observations of older children who were able to understand questions and hold conversations.
Because Piaget conducted the observations alone the data collected are based on his own subjective interpretation of events. It would have been more reliable if Piaget conducted the observations with another researcher and compared the results afterward to check if they are similar i.
Although clinical interviews allow the researcher to explore data in more depth, the interpretation of the interviewer may be biased.
Such methods meant that Piaget may have formed inaccurate conclusions. As several studies have shown Piaget underestimated the abilities of children because his tests were sometimes confusing or difficult to understand e. Piaget failed to distinguish between competence what a child is capable of doing and performance what a child can show when given a particular task.
When tasks were altered, performance and therefore competence was affected. For example, a child might have object permanence competence but still not be able to search for objects performance. However, Piaget relied on manual search methods — whether the child was looking for the object or not. Piaget stated that the three basic reasoning skills acquired during this stage were identity, compensation, and reversibility Woolfolk, A.
By this time, the child learns that a "person or object remains the same over time" identity and one action can cause changes in another compensation Woolfolk, A. The child is also able to classify items by focusing on a certain aspect and grouping them accordingly Woolfolk, A. Piaget's final stage of cognitive development is formal operations, occurring from age eleven years to adulthood.
People who reach this stage and not everyone does, according to Piaget are able to think abstractly. They have achieved skills such as inductive and deductive reasoning abilities.
People in the formal operations stage utilize many strategies and resources for problem solving. They have developed complex thinking and hypothetical thinking skills. Through hypothetico-deductive reasoning, one is able to identify the factors of a problem, and deduce solutions Woolfolk, A. People in this stage also imagine the best possible solutions or principles, often through the ability to think ideally Woolfolk, A. The acquisition of meta-cognition thinking about thinking is also a defining factor of those people in formal operations.
Based on Piaget's proposed stages and ability levels at each, certain teaching strategies have been offered for teaching in the Piagetian school of thought. In the preoperational stage, the teacher would have to use actions and verbal instruction. Because the child has not yet mastered mental operations, the teacher must demonstrate his or her instructions, because the child cannot yet think through processes.
The use of visual aids, while keeping instructions short would most benefit the child in this stage Woolfolk, A. Hands-on activities also aid with learning future complex skills, as the text mentions, reading comprehension Woolfolk, A.
The teacher must be sensitive to the fact that these children, according to Piaget, are still egocentric and may not realize that not everyone shares the same view Woolfolk, A. Teaching children in the concrete operations stage involves hands-on learning, as well.
Students are encouraged to perform experiments and testing of objects.
Comparing Piaget and Vygotsky
By performing experiments and solving problems, students develop logical and analytical thinking skills Woolfolk, A. Teachers should provide short instruction and concrete examples and offer time for practice.
With skills such as classification, compensation, and seriation developing during this stage, teachers should provide ample opportunities to organize groups of objects on "increasingly complex levels" Woolfolk, A.
Teaching those in the formal operations stage involves giving students the opportunity to advance their skills in scientific reasoning and problem solving, as begun in the concrete operations stage. Students should be offered open-ended projects in which they explore many solutions to problems. Opportunities to explore hypothetical possibilities should be granted to these students often.
As the text states, teachers need to teach the "broad concepts" of the material while relating it to their lives. Idealism is assumed to be acquired by a person in the formal operations stage; therefore, understanding broad concepts and their application to one's life aid in the realization of ideal concepts.
Piaget also proposed that a child acts on his own environment for learning. Social interaction takes place mainly to move a young child away from egocentricism. It is also important to note that Piaget stated that a child either held the mental structure for conservation, for example, or he did not.
A child in the preoperational stage could not be taught to understand the liquid volume experiment; she does not possess the mental structure of a child in concrete operations. As part of their cognitive development, children also develop schemes, which are mental representations of people, objects, or principles.
These schemes can be changed or altered through what Piaget called assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is information we already know. Accommodation involves adapting one's existing knowledge to what is perceived. Disequilibrium occurs when new knowledge does not fit with one's accumulated knowledge.
When one reaches what Piaget called equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation have occurred to create a new stage of development Woolfolk, A. When learning the concept of conservation, a child must first "struggle" with the idea that the liquid amount in the cylinders has not changed disequilibrium.
After accommodating the new knowledge, equilibrium occurs, and the child may advance to a new cognitive stage concrete operations. Around this time, another psychologist was offering his views on child cognitive development. Lev Vygotsky offered an alternative to Piaget's stages of cognitive development. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory of Development became a major influence in the field of psychology and education Woolfolk, A.
Through what Vygotsky called "dialogues," we socially interact and communicate with others to learn the cultural values of our society. Vygotsky also believed that "human activities take place in cultural settings and cannot be understood apart from these settings" Woolfolk, A. Therefore, our culture helps shape our cognition. Through these social interactions, we move toward more individualized thinking. The co-constructed process involves people interacting during shared activities, usually to solve a problem Woolfolk, A.
When the child receives help through this process, he or she may be able to utilize better strategies in the future, should a similar problem arise. The co-constructed dialogues lead to internalization, which in turn leads one to independent thinking Woolfolk, A. Scaffolding is another Vygotskian principle for the sociocultural perspective. Scaffolding involves providing the learner with hints or clues for problem solving in order to allow the student to better approach the problem in the future Woolfolk, A.
Jean Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
While Piaget would assume the student does not yet have the mental structures to solve such a problem, Vygotsky would offer encouragement or strategies, in the form of scaffolding, in order for the student to attempt the problem. The development of language is considered to be a major principle of Vygotsky's sociocultural theory. The language of a certain group of people indicates their cultural beliefs and value system.
For example, a tribe with many words meaning "hunting" indicates that hunting is an important aspect of their lives.