Autism and Animals: A Close Bond of Mutual Understanding – Celebrating Individual Abilities
In their relationships with pet animals, children's role of caregiving [26,27] . ' mutual physical activity', 'pet problems', and 'general attachment'. A brief overview of research findings to date on the mutual benefits de- rived from HAI will .. relationships children have with animals and peers. At the time of. This is truly the relationship between dogs and humans. always seem to love taking care of sick or handicapped children, adults, and seniors.
Companion Animals and Child/Adolescent Development: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
This study considers four research questions: Are there socio-demographic differences in childhood attachment to pets? Is pet ownership and pet type important in attachment between children and pets? Are there associations between childhood attachment to pets and attitudes towards animals?
Based on extensive literature review, we hypothesised that there would be a range of socio-demographic influences that would influence the degree of attachment between children and their pets, including age, gender, family affluence, and pet type.
We also hypothesised that strong attachment to pets would be associated with higher compassion to animals and pet care caring and friendship and positive attitudes towards animals. Materials and Methods 2. Primary 4, 8—9 year-olds The types of pets recorded were: The ethical guidelines of the British Psychological Society, specifically relating to research with children, was adopted for this research and ethical consent was granted by the University of Edinburgh Clinical and Health Psychology Ethics Committee.
Permission was sought from each local authority before schools were contacted. This scale comprises of four questions: This measure is based on extensive previous research and focuses on the strength of the emotional attachment of children to their pets.
It does not include some features of human attachment such as secure base behaviour. The first scale related to pet animals and comprised nine items e. The second scale related to wild animals and comprised eight items e. The third scale related to farm animals and comprised 12 items e. Principal components analysis PCA extracted three components from the humane behaviour variables explaining Component one, explaining Component two, explaining Component three, explaining 9.
The two reliable subscales are used in subsequent statistical analysis presented below. However, it is important to recognize that pet attachment may be more important in exerting these potential effects than pet ownership.Extreme Animal Relationships - Earth Unplugged
According to attachment theorists, when attachment behaviours are consistently met by the primary caregiver, children form secure internal working models a cognitive framework consisting of mental representations for understanding the world, self and others that are foundational for their ability to make affectionate bonds with others and to create and maintain close relationships [ 3 ].
Although psychological theories of attachment concentrate on attachment between humans, research has demonstrated that children display attachment behaviours towards their pets [ 18 ].
Because companion animals both give and receive affection, they can contribute to and partially fulfil attachment needs; therefore, the developmental importance of bonds that children and adolescents form with animals should not be overlooked [ 919 ].
In addition, children who develop poor parental attachment tend to nurture internal working models of distrust with others, insecurity, separation anxiety, low self-esteem, and a propensity for loneliness [ 202122 ].
5 amazing symbiotic animal relationships you didn't know about
If children are able to develop secure attachment behaviours with their pets as a substitute, secure internal working models may still develop to some extent [ 23 ]. Whether pet attachment and ownership has any impact on child and adolescent development is currently unclear. Self-psychology self-esteem, self-cohesion and self-acceptance is another important aspect of youth development. Particularly in early and pre-adolescence, developmental changes in self-esteem have a significant impact and fluctuate prominently, with large decreases in self-esteem during transition to adolescence [ 24 ].
It has been suggested that if companion animals provide support for self-esteem, their greatest influence will be on youths as they approach adolescence coinciding with increasing experiences of uncertainty and at this time they may have a higher need for the emotional support they derive from companion animals [ 25 ].
Also, during this period cognitive changes in thinking about the self and others, as well as relationships with significant others, such as parents and peers and perhaps petsare most common and can indirectly affect self-esteem [ 25 ]. If companion animals provide social support [ 15 ] and act as catalysts for human social interactions [ 26 ], they may reduce loneliness and increase self-esteem.
Companion animals have been found to rival and even surpass humans ability to provide important self-object needs, such as self-cohesion, self-esteem, calmness, soothing, and acceptance [ 27 ]. Increased self-esteem and self-worth may result in further benefits for individuals with anxiety, depression, behavioural problems and educational attainment.
However, whether causality can be implied to a link between companion animals and child or adolescent self-psychology is yet unknown. Companion animals may also influence cognitive development.
It has been suggested that companion animal ownership may facilitate language acquisition and potentially enhance verbal skills in children [ 28 ]. In addition, although not empirically tested, the pet may also serve as a subject of conversations that stimulate vocabulary building, when caregivers and children talk about what the pet is doing.
Melson [ 9 ] stated that for many children, companion animals are likely to be powerful motivators for learning, perhaps due to children learning and retaining more about subjects they are more emotionally invested in, and due to learning being optimized when it occurs within meaningful relationships.
The presence of animals has been shown to elicit immediate positive effects in testing situations of cognition such as memory, categorization and attention [ 293031323334 ] and studies on language, literacy, and reading ability have also shown a similar positive influence of animal presence [ 353637 ].
It has been speculated that animal interaction may provide opportunities to improve cognitive Executive Functions EFs mental processes that form the basis for planning, attention, memory and self-control through stress reduction and social support which in turn can affect behaviour and improve academic outcomes [ 38 ].
Pesticides have also reduced pollinator populations.
- Companion Animals and Child/Adolescent Development: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
Bees are often killed by chemicals applied to eliminate other pests. Honeybees are being destroyed by diseases and parasitic mites. The crisis is not just affecting native ecosystems.
Fruit trees and many other food crops depend on pollination for production. We stand to lose over three quarters of our edible crops if we lose pollinators.
What can be done? Encourage pollinators by planting a diverse mixture of adult and larval food plants in your garden.
Erect bat and bird houses, as well as bee hives. Reduce or eliminate pesticide use. Help restore native plant communities not only in your yard, but also in parks and along roadways, and connect them through corridors to preserves and other natural areas.
Plants and Their Dispersers No two plants can occupy the same spot. In order to have room to grow, seeds must be dispersed away from the parent plant.
5 amazing symbiotic animal relationships you didn't know about | From the Grapevine
Seed dispersal is accomplished by a variety of means, including wind, water, and animals. Animal dispersal is accomplished by two different methods: Animals consume a wide variety of fruits, and in so doing disperse the seeds in their droppings. Many seeds benefit not only from the dispersal, but the trip through the intestine as well. Digestive acids scarify seeds, helping them to break out of thick seed coats. Some seeds are armed with hooks and barbs that enable them to lodge in the fur of animals that brush past them.
Beggar's ticks and bur marigold are two examples.
Eventually, the seeds are rubbed or scratched off, and may find a suitable spot on which to germinate and grow. People are important for dispersing plants, too. The common weed plantain was called "white man's footsteps" by Native Americans because wherever settlers walked, the plantain came in the mud on their shoes. Some Animals and the Plants They Disperse Ants - Many wildflowers, such as trilliums, bloodroot, violets Birds - Fleshy fruits and grains, such as baneberry, viburnums, mountain ash Clark's Nutcracker - Whitebark pine Mammals - Fruits, grains, nuts, berries Squirrel - Nuts, such as those of oaks, hickories, pines Fox - Berries, such as blackberry, grapes Humans - Weeds such as plantain, dandelion, lamb's-quarters Reptiles - Fleshy fruits, especially berries such as strawberry, groundcherry, jack-in-the-pulpit Mutualism Mutualism is an obligate interaction between organisms that requires contributions from both organisms and in which both benefit.
There are many examples in nature. Pollination and dispersal, discussed above, are mutualistic because both plant and pollinator or disperser benefit from the relationship.
The relationship between mycorrhizal fungi and many higher plants is another common example of mutualism. The bodies of the fungi, called hyphae, live on or in the tissues of plants, and make nutrients available for the plants to absorb. The plants provide the fungi with amino acids and other complex compounds. One of the most celebrated examples is the orchids.