What is the relationship between psychology and the biological sciences? - index-art.info
ABSTRACT. This paper explores the relationship between common-sense psychology .. of science in general and SP in particular are to describe and explain. In the relations between psychology and biology these two-way exchanges are particularly illuminate some parts of biology, it might at first seem that no direct relation geration to say that it is up to psychology to explain to us the formation. The relationship between psychology and medicine Some implications for the teaching of Psychology to medical students are discussed. Previous article in.
Two scientific revolutions are included in evolutionary psychology: Cognitive revolution of the s and s. It explains the mechanics of thought and emotion in terms of information and computation.
Revolution of evolutionary biology of s and s. It explains the complex adaptive design of living things which depends on the selection of the reproducing animals. In the process of evolution, all animal species have adapted to the environment structurally and behaviorally.
The behaviors of all animals area result of their adaption to their environment. In the process the brains have developed in such a manner that certain associations and responses are learned easily. Some species learn some behaviors very easily, these are known as prepared behaviors.
Charles A Ellwood: The Relations of Sociology and Social Psychology
Certain behaviors cannot be learnt at all these are called contra prepared behaviors. Thirdly, unprepared behaviors are those That can be acquired, but only when learning procedures are used. We have heard of the Placebo effect.
It refers to the condition in which a person feels he is getting better because he is taking a medicine and so his behavior changes. A placebo is in fact a fake pill or an injection. Sugar Pills and Saline water injections are common placebos.
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- What is the relationship between psychology and the biological sciences?
Moerman feels that these things have an impact not because of actual reaction as in Chemistry but due to suggestion our mind gives us. Doctors sometimes prescribe placebos as they are found effective in pain, anxiety, depression, alertness, tension, sexual arousal, alcohol craving, among so many problems.
There are many ways, other than medicine, according to research, to relax people under stress, one of which is meditation.
There can be many ways of meditation, listening to music, taking walks; enjoying hobbies; in fact, anything that helps to stop upsetting thoughts and increase relaxation reduce stress. Vipassana Buddhist technique meditation is very useful to reduce or help tolerate the pain. In progressive relaxation, we relax the body completely by proding deep relaxation in all body parts, one by one.
This is a systematic technique of relaxing the body. Another technique known as guided imagery can also be used. In this method, an individual is asked to lay on the ground in a relaxed position with eyes closed and he is asked to imagine a beautiful picture or a scenery or a garden full of flowers or any similar visual imagine that produce relaxation.
These diseases are known as psychosomatic diseases. They hold that consciousness emerges when the innate reactions fail to adapt the organism to the environment, and that higher mental processes are evolved in order to adjust the organism more and more effectively to the complex environment. The relation between psychological science and biological science is very close.
Experience and behaviour of an individual can be explained in terms of some of the basic concepts of biological science. Hess has shown that there are close correlations between psychic and neuronal processes in human personality. It is obvious, then, that the relation between psychological and biological sciences is very great.
Relationship between Psychology and Other Sciences
Psychology is a science of experience. Experiences of an individual are intimately connected with physiological processes, especially of the nervous system. Hence, psychology studies these physiological processes in order to adequately account for mental processes.
Psychology is not to be confounded with physiology. Psychology deals with experiences, viz. These are connected with physiological processes which are, therefore, studied by psychology. Psychology also deals with behaviour which is an expression of experience. Behaviour is bodily reaction of an individual to the physical and social environment. Hence, psychology studies the nature of the different kinds of behaviour. It does not study the nature of all kinds of physiological processes.
Physiology, on the other hand, studies the nature of all kinds of physiological processes—the functions of all organs of the body.
The Behaviourists seek to reduce psychology to physiology which is a biological science. They do away with the concept of mind or consciousness. Psychology deals with behaviour which is a reaction of the whole organism to the stimulus, and not of a part of it. But physiology studies the reactions of the different parts or organs of the body. Researches in the field of physiological psychology have thrown valuable light on the nature of human personality and telic behaviour.
Psychology is wider in scope than Logic, because it deals with all kinds of mental processes, viz. But Logic deals with thinking only, which is a kind of knowing. It does not deal with feeling and willing.
Psychology tells us how we actually think while Logic- tells us how we ought to think in order to arrive at truth. There are some differences between Psychology and Logic. Psychology is concerned with the study of mental processes, e.
Psychology deals with concrete mental processes, viz. Logic, as a normative science, is based on Psychology which is a positive science. In order to know how we ought to reason, we should know how we do reason. We should know the nature of reasoning before we can investigate the conditions of its validity.
Psychology deals with the actual process of reasoning. Logic deals with the validity of reasoning and the conditions of its validity. Nevertheless, the laws of logic are conditioned by the laws according to which the human personality thinks.
All types of logical thinking are limited by the limitations of the human mind. During recent years the relation between psychological science and logic is very close. During the empirical phase of the development of psychological science it has been more concerned with experiments.
However, recently it has been making use of the concepts and techniques of symbolic logic for theoretical systematization of psychological science. Philosophy has two parts epistemology and ontology. Psychology enquires into the nature of knowing, feeling, and willing. It deals with knowing as a fact, and the nature and development of knowledge of an individual mind. It is concerned with the validity of knowledge.
Psychology assumes the possibility of knowledge and merely traces its growth and development in an individual mind. But Epistemology enquires into the conditions under which knowledge is possible, and deals with the validity of knowledge. It seeks to answer the following questions: Is it experience or reason or both?
Relationship between Psychology and Other Sciences
Thus Psychology is the basis of Epistemology. It enquires into the nature of knowing as a fact. Epistemology, on the other hand, enquires into the validity of knowledge.
In order to enquire into the validity of knowledge, we should know how we actually know. Locke tried to solve the problems of epistemology by the psychological analysis of the process of knowing.
But Kant tried to solve them by the critical method, and tried to find out the a priori conditions of knowledge, which are its presuppositions. Psychology is related to Ontology or Metaphysics. Psychology deals with knowing as a fact.
Metaphysics or Ontology deals with the ultimate nature of the self, the external world, and God. Psychology is not concerned with God at all.
Metaphysics proves the reality of the self, the world, and the knowledge of the world by the self. Metaphysics tests the validity of the fundamental assumptions of psychology.
Psychology originated from philosophy like every other science. However, as psychology developed as an autonomous science, it got itself separated from philosophy. Recently it has discovered that there are certain theoretical problems in psychological science which are of speculative nature.