Federal government of the United States - Wikipedia
The presiding officer of the chamber is the Speaker of the House, elected by . All legislative power in the government is vested in Congress, meaning that it is. democratic form of state government so the constitution was drafted, The chief of the executive branch is the governor who is elected every four Since the legislature does not meet year-round, legislative work is a part-time job. The U.S. Constitution mandates that all states uphold a "republican form" of government, although the three-branch structure is not required.
These and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. Legislative branch Main article: United States Congress Seal of the U. Congress The United States Congress is the legislative branch of the federal government.
What Does Congress Do?
It is bicameralcomprising the House of Representatives and the Senate. Makeup of Congress House of Representatives The seats of the House grouped by state The House currently consists of voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district.
The number of representatives each state has in the House is based on each state's population as determined in the most recent United States Census.
All representatives serve a two-year term. Each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House.
In order to be elected as a representative, an individual must be at least 25 years of age, must have been a U. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve. In addition to the voting members, there are 6 non-voting members, consisting of 5 delegates and one resident commissioner. There are currently senators 2 from each of the 50 stateswho each serve six-year terms. Approximately one-third of the Senate stands for election every two years. Different powers The House and Senate each have particular exclusive powers.
For example, the Senate must approve give " advice and consent " to many important presidential appointments, including cabinet officers, federal judges including nominees to the Supreme Courtdepartment secretaries heads of federal executive branch departmentsU. All legislative bills for raising revenue must originate in the House of Representatives.
The approval of both chambers is required to pass all legislation, which then may only become law by being signed by the president or, if the president vetoes the bill, both houses of Congress then re-pass the bill, but by a two-thirds majority of each chamber, in which case the bill becomes law without the president's signature. The powers of Congress are limited to those enumerated in the Constitution; all other powers are reserved to the states and the people.
The Constitution also includes the " Necessary and Proper Clause ", which grants Congress the power to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers".
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Members of the House and Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Georgiawhich have runoffs. Impeachment of federal officers Main article: Impeachment in the United States Congress has the power to remove the president, federal judges, and other federal officers from office.
The House of Representatives and Senate have separate roles in this process. The House must first vote to "impeach" the official. Then, a trial is held in the Senate to decide whether the official should be removed from office.
Although two presidents have been impeached by the House of Representatives Andrew Johnson and Bill Clintonneither of them was removed following trial in the Senate.
Congressional procedures Article I, Section 2, paragraph 2 of the U. Constitution gives each chamber the power to "determine the rules of its proceedings".
From this provision were created congressional committeeswhich do the work of drafting legislation and conducting congressional investigations into national matters. The th Congress — had 19 standing committees in the House and 17 in the Senate, plus 4 joint permanent committees with members from both houses overseeing the Library of Congressprinting, taxation, and the economy.
In addition, each house may name special, or select, committees to study specific problems. Today, much of the congressional workload is borne by the subcommittees, of which there are around The Constitution grants numerous powers to Congress. Enumerated in Article I, Section 8, these include the powers to levy and collect taxes ; to coin money and regulate its value; provide for punishment for counterfeiting; establish post offices and roads, issue patents, create federal courts inferior to the Supreme Courtcombat piracies and feloniesdeclare warraise and support armiesprovide and maintain a navymake rules for the regulation of land and naval forces, provide for, arm and discipline the militiaexercise exclusive legislation in the District of Columbiaand to make laws necessary to properly execute powers.
Over the two centuries since the United States was formed, many disputes have arisen over the limits on the powers of the federal government. These disputes have often been the subject of lawsuits that have ultimately been decided by the United States Supreme Court. Congressional oversight Main article: Congressional oversight Congressional oversight is intended to prevent waste and fraud, protect civil liberties and individual rights, ensure executive compliance with the law, gather information for making laws and educating the public, and evaluate executive performance.
Congress's oversight function takes many forms: One senator and two assembly members are elected from each of the 40 districts of New Jersey. The Legislature's main job is to enact laws. The Legislature can also propose amendments to the New Jersey Constitution. The Senate and General Assembly meet for about 40 sessions a year.
Sessions are held on Mondays and Thursdays. During the rest of the week, the legislators often hold committee meetings or public hearings. Since the legislature does not meet year-round, legislative work is a part-time job.
Most legislators have another job as well. The leader of the Senate is the Senate President. The Speaker of the General Assembly heads that body. The President and the Speaker schedule meetings and determine which bills will be considered within their respective houses. They also lead the legislative sessions.
While both houses introduce and vote on bills, the Senate and Assembly have individual powers, too. The Assembly can bring impeachment charges but the Senate is the court of impeachment in New Jersey, where the charges are tried.
Federal government of the United States
Any bills requiring revenue to be raised start out in the Assembly. But, by custom, the Senate handles the state budget. A legislator must live in the district he or she represents.
Senators have to be at least 30 and have to live in New Jersey for at least four years before being elected. Members of the Assembly must be at least 21 and state residents for two years. There is also leadership within the political parties in both houses. The majority and minority leaders and the assistant leaders develop each party's policies on the issues raised in the bills.Meet Jack. Or, What The Government Could Do With That Location Data
Additionally, there are many committees that review legislation. Learn more about the role of committees and the process of making a law in " How a Bill Becomes a Law.
OLS staff also drafts the bills and resolutions. In addition, each house has partisan staff that performs similar functions, but only for their respective parties. Each legislator also has his or her own district office with staff to handle constituent issues. Judicial Branch The judicial branch decides how state laws should be applied.