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Around the end of the 8th century, Anglo-Saxon history tells of many Viking raids. These marked the start of a long struggle between the Anglo-Saxons and the. The traditional date of AD for the arrival of the Anglo-Saxon invaders of Britain is taken from the .. Æthelred and Alfred of Wessex meet the Vikings in several battles . A later tradition pictures these kings rowing him down the River Dee. Within nine years the Vikings had attacked and established their rule, or Danelaw , over the kingdoms of Northumbria and East Anglia, their former Anglo-Saxon.
Later, when Eric was killed in battle, the Vikings agreed to be ruled by England's king. The most powerful Anglo-Saxon king was Edgar. Welsh and Scottish rulers obeyed him as well as the English, and his court at Winchester was one of the most splendid in Europe. Anglo-Saxon England reached its peak during Edgar's reign. Eric Bloodaxe was Jorvik's last king. He ruled the Viking Kingdom of Northumbria.
Who was King Cnut? In Viking times, a king had to be strong to fight and keep his land. In the early 11th century, England had a weak king.
BBC - Primary History - Vikings - What happened to the Vikings?
His name was Ethelred the Unready. Ethelred tried to stop the Vikings from invading by giving them gold and land. This money was called Danegeld. Offa, king of Mercia, was given an archbishopric for his lands in the short-lived metropolitan see of Lichfield. Later generations of Scottish monarchs claimed Constantine as a king of the Scots, but he seems to have been king of the Picts, a tribe that inhabited much of northern Scotland.
The St Andrew's sarcophagus, one of the finest pieces of sculpture from Europe at this time, may belong to his reign. The reeve of Dorchester a local high-ranking official went to greet them after they landed, perhaps accustomed to welcoming Scandinavian merchants.
Viking attacks increased in intensity over the coming decades, until the Vikings assembled a 'Great Army' equipped for conquest in about AD. He heard about the attack on the monastery in his native Northumbria and wrote: In the third attack, in AD, 68 monks were killed and most of the rest fled to safety in the monastery of Kells County Meath, Ireland.
They took with them the gospel book now known as the 'Book of Kells', a lavishly illuminated manuscript, which is one of the greatest treasures of Celtic art. But in AD he not only conquered Mercia, but forced the Northumbrians to submit as well. From then on, Wessex retained its dominance in England. Egbert's grandson, Alfred, initiated the creation of the single kingdom of England.
Some sources suggest that around AD the kingdom of the Scots and the Picts was amalgamated, and that from this date historians can speak of a 'kingdom of Scotland'. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Athelstan fought a sea battle against the Vikings off Sandwich, capturing nine ships and putting the rest to flight. The Vikings - who had assembled a 'Great Army' equipped for conquest rather than raiding - took advantage of the opportunity to defeat and kill both kings. They also slaughtered many people both inside and outside the city, before moving south.
The city became Yorvik, the Viking capital in England. He was beheaded and his head thrown away to prevent proper burial. Much later, his head was finally reunited with the body, and both were buried in the royal residence, which later became known as Bury St Edmunds.
They took booty and captives, including the king of Strathclyde, back with them to Dublin, their capital in Ireland. None of these battles were decisive.
Their army then moved south from Repton into Mercia where they were met by King Burhred, who was driven overseas and died in Rome. He returned in AD and was killed, although the precise manner of his death is unclear.
Alfred, king of Wessex, took refuge in the marshes of Athelney Somerset. After Easter, he called up his troops and defeated the Viking king Guthrum, who he persuaded to be baptised.
He later brought Guthrum to terms and created a settlement that divided England. Alfred and Wessex retained the west, while the east between the Thames and Tees rivers was to be Viking territory - later known as the 'Danelaw' - where English and Danish Vikings were equal in law. October Alfred the Great of Wessex dies and is succeeded by his son Edward the Elder Alfred, king of Wessex, was the only English ruler to earn the moniker 'the Great'.
At the time of his death, his kingdom was the only English realm that had preserved its independence from the Vikings. Under his son, Edward the Elder, the armies of Wessex began the conquest of the rest of England from the Vikings.
She built fortresses and pushed into the territory of the Danes Vikings. Leicester submitted to her without a fight. She died just after receiving a formal offer of allegiance from the men of Yorkshire. Niall was slain along with 12 other kings. He joined with the kings of Strathclyde and the Scots to invade England. No one knows where Brunanburh is, but the sources all agree that Athelstan of Wessex, with an army of West Saxons and Mercians, inflicted a crushing defeat on the invaders.
The five Welsh kings submitted to a huge annual tribute and he also subdued Cornwall. In AD, he defeated a combined invasion force at the Battle of Brunanburh. He was buried in Malmesbury Abbey. He had taken part in the Battle of Brunanburh, in which an invasion by Dublin Vikings, Welsh and Scots was crushed, and continued his brother's struggle with Olaf Guthfrithson, leader of the Dublin Vikings.
He was at the royal manor of Pucklechurch Gloucestershire when he tried to stop a brawl among his men and was killed. The historical capitals of Wessex were Winchester and Kingston-on-Thames. Northumbria "north of Humber" was formed from a union of two smaller Anglo-Saxon realms in the year CE during the reign of King Oswiu. The kingdoms had been previously unified under the leadership of the King Edwin CEwho became very powerful during his lifetime that he briefly extended his realm to include the Isle of Mann in the Irish Sea and the Welsh kingdoms of Elmet now West Riding of Yorkshire and Gwynedd northern Walesachieving the status of Bretwalda Anglo-Saxon: Edwin would convert to the Christian faith in CE, as part of the agreement he made to King Eadbald of Kent, then the most powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south, to marry his sister, Aethelburh.
Edwin's reign did much to shape the destiny of Northumbria, which despite losing it's preminence in the north as well as dominion over Mann and Gwynedd, would annex the Welsh kingdom of Rheged Cumbria and Lancashire under the reign of King Oswald CE who also permanently made the future realm of Northumbria into a Christian state.
The Angle Kingdom of Lindesege Lindseylocated in Lincolnshire, was also absorbed into Northumbria during the 7th century. Eoforwic York was the capital of Northumbria, and was also the second of the two Christian archdiocese in all of England, with St Paulinus, who converted King Edwin in CE, as it's first archbishop.
The formation of the Mercian kingdom is considered to be more obscure than the other Anglo-Saxon realms, as Mercia was the last kingdom to convert to Christianity.
The Mercians were largely derived from the Angle tribes that settled in western and central Britain amidst the native Britons. Their territory was mainly comprised of the modern regions of Staffordshire, Warwickshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire. They would also absorb the Anglo-Saxon realm of Hwicce which dominated the lands of Worcestershire, Gloucestershire and part of Shropshire. Their name Mierce signified that they bordered the Celtic Welsh lands which remained unconquered by the Germanic Anglo-Saxons, whose lands were known by the Welsh as Lloegyr, or 'the lost lands'.
The traditional capital was the town of Tamworth in Staffordshire. King Croeda is believed to be the first ruler of Mercia. Croeda was the scion of a powerful Angle clan known as the Iclingas, which was founded by a chieftain called Icel, whose forbear was believed to be Woden. Mercia enjoyed a period of great power under kings such as Penda CEthe last Pagan ruler among the Anglo-Saxons, and King Offa CEwhom led Mercia before the rise of Wessex and the builder of Offa's Dyke, an earthern boundary to safeguard the realm of Mercia from Welsh raiders.
East Anglia or East Engla Rice Kingdom of the East Angles was formed during the 6th century CE from a union of the two Angle tribes of the Norfolk and the Suffolk, under the leadership of a royal clan known as the Wuffingas 'descendents of the wolf'.
The East Angle ruler Raedwald CEwho was powerful enough to be considered a Bretwalda in his own right, was the first of his nation to convert to Christianity and patronized the religion after it was renounced by the Kentish and Sussex rulers.
Raedwald is also believed to be the subject of the famous Sutton Hoo burial. The centre of power in East Anglia was Rendlesham. Kent, known as the Cantawara Rice or 'Kingdom of the Kent-people', was established by Jutish migrants sometime in the 5th century CE and was the very first of the so-called Anglo-Saxon kingdoms to be established on British soil, as well as being the most powerful during the early phase of the Heptarchy era. The name Kent is believed to have originally derived from the ancient Celtic tribe, the Cantiaci in south-eastern England.
Their homeland was known as the Civitas Cantium by the Romans. According to legend, the warlord brothers Hengist and Horsa led a band of Jutish warriors to Britain to serve as mercenaries for the Romano-Brittonic ruler Vortigern, to protect his realm from marauding Picts and Irish.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states that after the Jutish assisted Vortigern with his Pictish trouble, they sent word to their fellow chieftains among the Jutes and Angles that the Brittonic kingdoms were too weak to defend themselves and were ripe for the taking. The Jutes of Kent had initially established themselves on the island of Thanet off the coast of Kent before they took over the country.
For this reason, the Kentish capital of Canterbury became the primary Christian archdiocese in England. Through the 8th-9th centuries, Kent was overshadowed by the growing powers of Mercia and Wessex. In CE, Kent, by then a vassal kingdom of Mercia, was ceded to Wessex under the rule of King Ecbert, who was himself the son of a previous king of Kent.
After which Kent became a subsidiary realm governed by the heirs to the West Saxon throne.