Full text of "Central and South America "
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Little is known about the effects of altitudinal climatic variation on the diversification of Neotropical insects. In central Mexico, in addition to altitude, highly heterogeneous topography generates diverse climates that can occur even at the same latitude. Altitudinal variation and heterogeneous topography open an opportunity to test the relative impact of climatic variation on body size adaptations.
In this study, we investigated the relationship between altitudinal climatic variation and body size, and the divergence rates of sexual size dimorphism SSD in Neotropical grasshoppers of the genus Sphenarium using a phylogenetic comparative approach. In order to distinguish the relative impact of natural and sexual selection on the diversification of the group, we also tracked the altitudinal distribution of the species and trends of both body size and SSD on the phylogeny of Sphenarium.
relativa distribucion altitudinal: Topics by index-art.info
The correlative evidence suggests no relationship between altitude and body size. However, larger species were associated with places having a warmer winter season in which the temporal window for development and reproduction can be longer. Nonetheless, the largest species were also associated with highly seasonal environments.
Moreover, large body size and high levels of SSD have evolved independently several times throughout the history of the group and male body size has experienced a greater evolutionary divergence than females.
These lines of evidence suggest that natural selection, associated with seasonality and sexual selection, on maturation time and body size could have enhanced the diversification of this insect group.
Human and Heath Virology October 18th Monday Plant Virology October 18th Monday Basic Virology October 19th Tuesday Human and Health Virology October 19th Tuesday Immunobiologicals October 19th Tuesday OP-3 Silva Junior, H. Executive Vice-President Albert B. The Program in Ethiopia was a major challenge as it was understaffed for the first 4 years, and the communications and transportation was precarious, with less than 5, kilometers of all-weather road in a country that had a population of over 25 million people and had 1.
Ethiopia was the first country in the world in which the eradication program started from day one utilizing only the surveillance and containment strategy and in the first year of the program, with a staff of less than 50 individuals and 7 vehicles, the program investigated over 25, cases. Besides that, there was civil unrest in several areas of the country, variolation and resistance to vaccination was widespread in several provinces and by the third year of the program there was a violent change in Government.
Despite these difficulties, after a concerted effort that lasted about six years, the last case of the disease was detected in August, in the Ogaden Desert, bordering Somalia. Subsequently, inthe last case of smallpox was detected in Somalia. Since then, several outbreaks of CTGVlike have been frequently reported in distinct states of Brazil.
There is no antiviral therapy against poxvirus infections. Therefore, in addition to the prevalence of cowpox infections in Europe and the occurrence of complications from smallpox vaccination, the spread of these VACV in the wild imposes the need for novel, effective anti-poxvirus drugs. Cidofovir CDV is an acyclic phosphonate nucleoside analog that has proved its efficacy against a variety of DNA virus, including poxvirus. Our data indicate that CDV inhibited genome encapsidation and this effect would probably lead to the severe inhibition of virus yield.
Folha de rosto FALTA LOGO - Sociedade Brasileira de Virologia
These aggregates seem to be excluded during the process of genome encapsidation. Nevertheless, this effect was not a result of a direct effect of CDV on virus morphogenesis.
We have also studied the effect of ST on Cantagalo virus replication. ST is newly-discovered antiOrthopoxvirus drug that targets virus egress from cells. We observed the reduction of plaque formation, intracellular and extracellular yields, inhibition of B-galactosidase expression by recombinant viruses and the reduction of comet tail formation.
Nowadays, IFNs specifically type I IFNshave been ascribed as the cytokines that bridge the innate and adaptive immunity soon after the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns PAMPs by the infected host.
Notably, a unifying mechanism for type I IFN production has been established upon innate immune detection. It is worth noting that pathogen recognition triggers a fine-tuned controlled program that not only includes the production of antiviral IFN and proinflammatory cytokines to initiate the antiviral response but also signals the cessation of the response through the induction of suppressors of cytokine signaling SOCS.
This fact supports the researches for searching new drugs to treat these infections. However, very recently the antiherpes activity anti-HSV types 1 and 2 of some cardenolides has been published Hartley et al.
These results encouraged us to perform an antiherpes screening of 68 natural and synthetic cardenolide derivatives. Some of these compounds showed higher activity, when compared to that of ACV, including against one HSV-1 strain 29R that is resistant to this drug. We will describe here the antiviral effects of two compounds, which have been chosen due to their high detected anti-HSV activity. Their mechanisms of action were evaluated through a sequence of assays to identify in which steps of the viral replication process these compounds act.
The obtained results showed that both compounds did not display virucidal effects neither inhibited viral attachment and entry into the cells dextran sulphate was used as positive control. Vanessa Moresco; Under graduate students: This is mainly due to the persistence of genomes of inactivated viruses that remain either partially or fully intact in the environment. Therefore, some efforts have been made to design methods for only infectious viruses detection. Enzymatic treatments may differentiate infective from inactivated viruses based on differences in the ability of their proteic capsids to protect the genomes from proteases and nucleases.
Although this former method is sensitive to evaluate the viral viability, there are suspicions if all DNA detected in the assay comes from the cell culture replication. Some of these results will be presented in the present work. One matrix studied was seawater under U. One liter of viral seeded seawater was harvested every 24h and viral particles were concentrated by flocculation method using skimmed milk.
The kinetics of disinfection were evaluated by quantification of genomic copies q RT PCR and infectious viral particles Plaque Assay in two independents assays. After 30 min of treatment of natural seawater 0. The combined results of qPCR from treated and no treated samples revealed that on affluent samples from ETDS system were found an average of 8. On samples collected in the middle point were detected 5. On the last sample point, the effluent from the system presented an average of 3.
On the other hand, from UD system the average on affluent was 6. On samples collected in the middle point were detected 1. The results clearly show the presence of viable virus particles on all samples points from both treatment systems. Finally, a shellfish depuration system was analysed to check its efficiency to eliminate HAdV5 and HAV from oysters, after seawater treatment with ultraviolet UV.
The conventional PCR detection for both viruses, in digestive tissue, showed that, during the depuration process, HAdV5 genome was 28 detected during all sampling periods 0h, 48h, 72h and 96hand the presence of the HAV genome was detected until 72h. In order to evaluate viral viability, oyster samples were inoculated on cell monolayers at noncytotoxic dilutions and the cell supernatants were subsequently subjected to nucleic acid extraction in order to detect infectious viral particles.
For the HAV, the viral inactivation was reached at 48h of depuration. However, for the total inactivation of HAdV5, more than 96h of water recirculation under UV radiation was required. Viral viability by IFA positive was shown until 72h of oyster depuration, confirming that 96h depuration were necessary to guarantee virus-safe oysters. The ability of SV to infect cells possessing significantly different biochemical environments suggests there may be a common receptor and a common mode of entry into each cell type.
Two models for alpha virus entry have been proposed. The first proposes that virus binds to receptors, is internalized in endosomes and the creation of an acid environment within this compartment drives the fusion of the virus membrane with the endosome membrane. A second model proposes that interaction of the virion with the receptor induces the formation of a pore in the cell membrane through which the virus RNA passes and that membrane fusion is not necessary.
The former model is supported by evidence that agents which block the acidification of endosomes can prevent virus RNA or protein synthesis and the demonstration that virus can fuse with artificial membranes on exposure to acid pH.
The second model is supported by direct observation in the electron microscope and the observation that alphavirus infection make the plasma membrane permiable.
- Cláudio Botelho
We have shown that exposure to acid pH can produce dramatic conformational changes in the virus surface. We will describe experiments in which we have tried to resolve the differences in the two models in an attempt to explain all observations in a common model.
Since those early successes, approximately cell lines have been reported from more than insect species. Cell lines have been developed from a variety of tissues with embryonic tissue being a favored source for many researchers. While the basic technique has hardly changed over the 50 years, the improvements and wide availability of media and an improved understanding of the conditions that lead to successful cell growth have made development of new cell lines almost routine.
Such large-scale changes yielded surprising phenotypes, particularly those related to the specific infectivity of virus variants and to the attenuation of virus pathogenicity in CD tg mice. The strategy has been tested with influenza virus yielding highly attenuated influenza virus strains. The scrambled sequences were used to replace the domains P1 structural proteinsP2, or P3 non-structural proteins of the P1-P2-P3 polyprotein.
However, P1 scrambled-P2-P3 poliovirus loses out in competition experiments with wild type virus. This risk factor of OPV could be avoided if Sabin vaccine strains with a scrambled P2 region were used in vaccination campaigns.
Specifically, we have recoded the genome of poliovirus, altering the capsidcoding region by introducing to 1, nucleotide changes. Specifically, we altered favored to unfavored codon pairs, thereby changing the codon pair bias within the polyprotein without changing codon bias or the Poliomyelitis is a very ancient disease, and the global effort to eradicate it is the largest public health initiative in history.
Inpolio existed in over countries on five continents, and more thanchildren were paralyzed because of it. Although two excellent vaccines had been licensed bythe Global Polio Eradication Initiative GPEI followed Panamerican Health Organization in choosing the oral poliovirus vaccine OPV with attenuated virus over the inactivated poliovirus vaccine IPVfor both routine and supplementary immunization activities.
During the last two decades of the 20th century, global eradication of poliovirus appeared to be a realistic goal because polio transmission has been interrupted in the Americas, Europe and the Western Pacific, and type 2 wild poliovirus was globally eradicated. Though only 4 countries Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Nigeria have remained endemic sincepolio has re-emerged in countries previously declared polio-free, like Tajikistan.
Thus, it is urgent not only to reevaluate the tactics of stopping wild-poliovirus circulation, but also to define post-eradication policies. The original eradication strategy, based on OPV immunization, was supported by the conception that, although revertant polioviruses have increased neurovirulence, their transmissibility remains low and they soon disappear from populations.
However, this hypothesis was disproved inwhen it was shown that numerous cases of poliomyelitis in Hispaniola Island had been caused by circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus cVDPV type 1.
Also, several VDPV outbreaks were seen in 14 countries between and These findings caused WHO to reassess both current and future immunization strategies. In order for the eradication initiative to be effective, it is essential to achieve close integration between surveillance and laboratory activities. That guarantees the data generated from epidemiology and virology are available as the basis for action by immunization programme managers and others responsible for implementing eradication strategies.
In this context, environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring Enterovirus circulation and assessing the extent or duration of epidemic poliovirus circulation in specific populations. In some countries, wild polioviruses and VDPV have been detected in the environment, despite the absence of reported Acute Flaccid Paralysis cases.
Environmental surveillance is also a potential tool for monitoring indirectly the extent of population immunity. Recent progress towards elucidating the NIKmediated antiviral signaling includes the identification of the ribosomal protein L10 rpL10 as a specific partner and substrate of NIK that functions as the immediate downstream effector of NIK-mediated signaling 3.
Phosphorylation of rpL10 by NIK promotes translocation of the ribosomal protein to the nucleus where it may function to mount a defense response that negatively impacts virus infection. More recently, we found that NIK1 undergoes a stepwise pattern of phosphorylation within its activation-loop domain A-loop with distinct roles for different threonine residues. The conserved Thr and Thr were found to be phosphorylated in vitro and mutations at Thr impaired autophosphorylation and were defective for kinase activation in vitro and in vivo.
In contrast, a mutation at Thr did not impact autophosphorylation and increased substrate phosphorylation, suggesting an inhibitory role for Thr in kinase function. Our results establish that NIK1 functions as an authentic defense receptor as it requires activation to elicit a defense response. Our data also suggest a model whereby phosphorylation-dependent activation of a plant receptor-like kinase enables the Aloop to control differentially auto- and substrate phosphorylation.
We also provide evidence that geminivirus infection directly interferes with NIK-mediated nuclear relocalization of rpL10 as a counterdefensive measure. Overexpression of a constitutively activated NIK mutant TD in tomato plants, which is not inhibited by the geminivirus NSP, conferred tolerance to geminivirus infection.
We performed global expression profiling on geminivirus-infected leaves and on TDoverexpressing tobacco leaves.
Cláudio Botelho | Revolvy
The present geminivirusand TD-induced transcriptional studies demonstrate a clear predominance of shared responses over stimulusspecific positive changes on soybean leaves.
These results clearly indicate that viral infection may constitute the predominant stimulus that triggers NIK activation. The main viral diseases studies were on cotton, tobacco, vegetable crops and particular focus on citrus tristeza.
In the UnB, ex-members of the IAC plant virus group participated in the consolidation of a graduate course on plant pathology in Presently an estimate of professionals and posdocs are engaged in researches on diseases caused by plant viruses and related pathogens, besides graduate and undergraduate students.