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index-art.info Gallery of Books And Toys courtesy Arvind Gupta the Toy Maker. Have fun and learn through Toys and Books. Page by Samir Dhurde. Salamat meet Les Musiciens Du Nil Salam Delta (Piranha) Salim, Abdel Gadir: Abdel Gadir Salim All Stars The Merdoum Kings Play Songs Of .. Seeger, Mike, Peggy, Barbara & Penny (and Families) Animal Folk Songs For .. Sharma, Shivkumar (Zakir Hussain [&]) An Exquisite Raag In A Live Concert: Ràg Rasik. The Lion King (). G | 88 min | Animation, Adventure, Drama A Lion cub crown prince is tricked by a treacherous uncle into thinking he . what wildlife really is, four animals from the New York Central Zoo escape, unwittingly .. with an unscrupulous sea-witch in order to meet a human prince on land.

The euro is divided into cents.

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There are coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 cents and 1 euro and 2 euros. There are notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, and euros. The metric system is the legal standard. Comparatively, the area occupied by France is slightly less than twice the size of the state of Colorado. It extends km mi n—s and km mi e—w.

France is bounded on the n by the North Sea and Belgiumon the ne by Luxembourg and Germanyon the e by Switzerland and Italy, on the s by the Mediterranean Seaon the sw by Andorra and Spainon the w by the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic Oceanand on the nw by the English Channelwith a total boundary length of 6, km 3, miof which 3, km 2, mi is coastline. France's capital city, Paris, is located in the north central part of the country.

Much of the country is ringed with mountains. In the northeast is the Ardennes Plateau, which extends into Belgium and Luxembourg; to the east are the Vosges, the high Alpsand the Jura Mountains; and along the Spanish border are the Pyreneesmuch like the Alps in ruggedness and height.

The core of France is the Paris Basin, connected in the southwest with the lowland of Aquitaine. Low hills cover much of Brittany and Normandy. The old, worn-down upland of the Massif Centraltopped by extinct volcanoes, occupies the south-central area.

There are three other main river systems: The oceanic climate, prevailing in the western parts of the country, is one of small temperature range, ample rainfall, cool summers, and cool but seldom very cold winters. The continental transition type of climate, found over much of eastern and central France, adjoining its long common boundary with west-central Europe, is characterized by warmer summers and colder winters than areas farther west; rainfall is ample, and winters tend to be snowy, especially in the higher areas.

The Mediterranean climatewidespread throughout the south of France except in the mountainous southwestis one of cool winters, hot summers, and limited rainfall. In central and southern France, annual rainfall is light to moderate, ranging from about 68 cm 27 in at Paris to cm 39 in at Bordeaux. Rainfall is heavy in Brittany, the northern coastal areas, and the mountainous areas, where it reaches more than cm 44 in.

It has forests of oak and beech in the north and center, as well as pine, birch, poplar, and willow. The Massif Central has chestnut and beech; the subalpine zone, juniper and dwarf pine. In the south are pine forests and various oaks.

Eucalyptus imported from Australia and dwarf pines abound in Provence. Toward the Mediterranean are olive trees, vines, and mulberry and fig trees, as well as laurel, wild herbs, and the low scrub known as maquis from which the French resistance movement in World War II took its name.

The Pyrenees and the Alps are the home of the brown bear, chamois, marmot, and alpine hare. In the forests are polecat and marten, wild boar, and various deer. Hedgehog and shrew are common, as are fox, weasel, bat, squirrel, badger, rabbit, mouse, otter, and beaver. The birds of France are largely migratory; warblers, thrushes, magpies, owls, buzzards, and gulls are common. There are storks in Alsace and elsewhere, eagles and falcons in the mountains, pheasants and partridge in the south.

Flamingos, terns, buntings, herons, and egrets are found in the Mediterranean zone. The rivers hold eels, pike, perch, carp, roach, salmon, and trout; lobster and crayfish are found in the Mediterranean. As ofthere were at least 93 species of mammals, species of birds, and over 4, species of plants throughout the country. France's basic law for the protection of water resources dates from The mids brought passage of laws governing air pollutionwaste disposal, and chemicals.

In general, environmental laws embody the "polluter pays" principle, although some of the charges imposed—for example, an aircraft landing fee—have little effect on the reduction of the pollutant i. Water pollution is a serious problem in France due to the accumulation of industrial contaminants, agricultural nitrates, and waste from the nation's cities.

Air pollution is a significant environmental problem in France, which had the world's 11th-highest level of industrial carbon dioxide emissions intotaling million metric tons, a per capita level of 6.

The total level of carbon dioxide emissions in was about the same at Official statistics reflect substantial progress in reducing airborne emissions in major cities: An attempt to ban the dumping of toxic wastes entirely and to develop the technology for neutralizing them proved less successful, however, and the licensing of approved dump sites was authorized in the early s.

According to a report issued by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources IUCNthreatened species included 16 types of mammals, 15 species of birds, 3 types of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, 16 species of fish, 34 types of mollusks, 31 species of other invertebrates, and 2 species of plants. Endangered or extinct species in France include the Corsican swallowtail, the gray wolf, the false ringlet butterfly, the Pyrenean desman, and the Baltic sturgeon.

Extinct species include Perrin's cave beetle and the Sardinian pika. There were 95 males for every females in the country. According to the UN, the annual population rate of change for —10 was expected to be 0.

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The projected population for the year was 63, The population density was per sq km per sq miwith much of the population concentrated in the north and southeast areas of the country.

The capital city, Paris, had a population of 9, in that year. The next largest cities and their estimated populations include Lyon, 1,; Marseille1,; and Lille1, The law included amendments to include the French constitution's provision to protect "those fighting for freedom" and those threatened with inhuman and degrading treatment in their country of origin.

Ina total ofasylum applications were submitted to France, mostly from AsiaAfrica, and Europe. Refugees enjoy all the rights of regular immigrants. In it was estimated that illegal foreigners numbered ,—, According to Migration News, France deported 11, illegals in16, inand an expected 23, in Minorities are not recognized in France. They are expected to connect with "the Indivisible Republic," entitled in the French constitution.

Nevertheless, in Paris environs between April and Augustrioting and fires killed immigrants. Police evacuated rundown buildings where asylum seekers and irregular foreigners lived in crowded conditions. Inthe net migration rate was estimated as 0. Celtic, Latin, and Teutonic Frankish.

In all, it is estimated that more than million people have French as their official language or mother tongue. There are aboutJehovah 's Witnesses and between 80, andOrthodox Christians. Christian Scientists, Mormons, and Scientologists are also represented. The French Jewish community is one of the largest in the world, along with those in the United StatesIsrael, and the successor states of the former USSR ; more than half are immigrants from North Africa.

Themembers are divided between Reform, Conservative, and Orthodox groups. Jews have enjoyed full rights of citizenship in France sinceand the emancipation of Central European Jewry was accomplished, to a large extent, by the armies of Napoleon Bonaparte. Anti-Semitism became a flaming issue during the Dreyfus affair in the late s; in the s, principal French synagogues were under police guard because of a wave of attacks by international terrorists.

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The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the government reportedly respects this right in practice. Church and state have been legally separate since Registration for religious groups is not required, but most groups choose to do so in order to gain tax-exempt status. The About-Picard Law allows for the dissolution of groups that endanger the physical or psychological well-being of individuals, promote illegal medical practices, violate the freedom of others, or commit fraud.

The Interministerial Monitoring Mission Against Sectarian Abuses monitors the activities of religious sects or cults that are considered to be a possible threat to society or may be acting in violation of the law.

Its outstanding characteristic has long been the degree to which it is centralized at Paris—plateaus and plains offering easy access radiate from the city in all directions, and rivers with broad valleys converge on it from all sides. Inthe French road network totaledkmmiall of which was paved, and included about 10, km 6, mi of national highways.

In there were 29, passenger cars and 6, commercial vehicles in use. As of there were 29, km 18, mi of standard and narrow gauge railway track in operation, of which about 14, km 9, mi were electrified. Standard gauge track accounted for nearly the entire system, with narrow gauge right of way accounting for only km mi. TGV service between Paris and Lausanne became fully operational in The TGV set another world speed record on 18 May with a registered speed of Parisian bus lines carry aboutpassengers daily.

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Other cities with subways are Marseille, Lille, and Lyon, with construction underway in Toulouse. The km mi project by Eurotunnel, a British-French consortium, was completed in From these terminals, people can drive their cars and trucks onto trains, which can make the underground trek in about 30 minutes.

Rail lines that run through the tunnel include Le Shuttle, which provides both freight and passenger service, and Eurostar, a high-speed passenger-only line. In November a truck aboard a Le Shuttle train caught fire in the tunnel, causing extensive damage but no loss of life. Service was partially restored within weeks of the incident and full repairs were completed by the following May.

France, especially in its northern and northeastern regions, is well provided with navigable rivers and connecting canals, and inland water transportation is of major importance. As ofthere were about 8, km 5, mi of navigable waterways, of which 1, km 1, mi was accessible to craft of 3, metric tons. Kerguelen, an archipelago in the French Antarctic Territory, offers an offshore registry program which is less regulatory than official French registry.

More than half of freight traffic to and from French ports is carried by French ships. In there were an estimated airports in France. Ina total of had paved runways, and there were also three heliports. France's national airline, Air France, is government subsidized. It operates regularly scheduled flights to all parts of the world.

There are two major private airlines: The two international airports of Paris, Charles de Gaulle and Orly, both located in Paris, lead all others in France in both passenger and freight traffic. Inabout Relics from the period between and bc include some 4, dolmens structures consisting of two vertical stones capped by a horizontal stonenearly 1, of them in Brittany alone, and more than 6, men-hirs single vertical stonesmeasuring 1. There may already have been 2—3 million people in France when Phoenician and Greek colonists founded cities on the southern coast around bc.

Detailed knowledge of French history begins with the conquest of the region 58—51 bc by Julius Caesar. The country was largely inhabited by Celtic tribes known to the Romans as Gauls. Under Roman rule the Gallic provinces were among the most prosperous and civilized of the empire. Roman roads, traces of which still may be seen, traversed the land.

Numerous cities were founded. Latin superseded the Celtic dialects. Christianity spread rapidly in Roman Gaul after its introduction there in the 1st century, and by the time the empire began to disintegrate a few hundred years later, the Gauls were a thoroughly Romanized and Christianized people.

The Germanic invaders probably never constituted more than a dominant minority of the population. The first leader to make himself king of all the Franks was Clovis —who began his reign inrouting the last forces of the Roman governors of the province in Clovis claimed that he would be baptized a Christian in the event of his victory against the Visigoths, which was said to have guaranteed the battle.

Clovis regained the southwest from the Visigoths, was baptized inand made himself master of western Germany, but after his death the kingdom disintegrated and its population declined under the Merovingian dynasty. InCharles Martel was able to rally the eastern Franks to inflict a decisive defeat on the Saracens—Muslim invaders who already controlled the Iberian Peninsula —between Poitiers and Tours.

He spawned the Carolingian family, as well as his grandson, Charlemagne r. Ruling "by the sword and the cross," he gave the kingdom an efficient administration, created an excellent legal system, and encouraged the revival of learning, piety, and the arts. He added to the territories under his rule through wide conquests, eventually reigning over an area corresponding to present-day France, the FRG, the Low Countriesand northern Italy.

After the death of Charlemagne, the vast Carolingian Empire broke up during a century of feuding, the title of emperor passing to German rulers in the east. The territory of what is now France was invaded anew, this time by pagan tribes from Scandinavia and the north, and the region that later became known as Normandy was ceded to the Northmen in by Charles III "the Simple," r.

At the end of the century, Hugh Capet r. Feudalism was by now a well-established system. At first, their feudal overlordship over the other provinces of France was almost entirely nominal. Some of the largest of these, like the Duchy of Brittany, were practically independent kingdoms. The powers of the French monarchy were gradually extended in the course of the 11th and early 12th centuries, particularly by Louis VIwho died in The power of his son Louis VII r. Henry's sons, Richard and John, were unable to hold these far-flung territories against the vigorous assaults of Louis's son Philip Augustus r.

ByPhilip had not only reestablished the French crown's control over the former Angevin holdings in the north and west but also had firmly consolidated the crown's power in Languedoc and Toulouse.

Philip's grandson Louis IX St. Louisin a long reign —70firmly established the strength of the monarchy through his vigorous administration of the royal powers. The reign of Louis's grandson Philip IV "the Fair," — marks the apogee of French royal power in the medieval period. He quarreled with the papacy over fiscal control of the French clergy and other aspects of sovereignty.

His emissaries arrested Pope Boniface VIII and after his death removed the seat of the papacy to Avignonwhere the popes resided under French dominance the so-called Babylonian Captivity until It is estimated that between and the population dropped from 16 million to 11 million, mainly from a series of epidemics, beginning with the Black Death bubonic plague of — InHenry V of England; taking advantage of civil war between the Gascons and Armagnacs, and the growing insanity of Charles VI; launched a new invasion of France and won a decisive victory at Agincourt.

Upon Henry's death inhis infant son Henry VI was crowned king of both France and England, but in the same year, Charles's son, the dauphin of France, reasserted his claim, formally assumed the royal title, and slowly began the reconquest.

Philip the Fair was succeeded by three sons, who reigned briefly and who left no direct male heirs, ending the Capetian dynasty. Inhis nephew Philip VI in accordance with the so-called Salic Law, under which succession could pass through a male line only mounted the throne as the first of the Valois kings.

InEdward asserted a formal claim to the French crown, shortly thereafter quartering the lilies of France on his shield.

The struggle that lasted from to over these rival claims is known as the Hundred Years' War. Actually it consisted of a series of shorter wars and skirmishes punctuated by periods of truce.

Under Charles V r. The English armies themselves were commanded by French-speaking nobles and a French-speaking king. Although the legitimate succession to the French crown was the ostensible issue throughout the war, the emerging forces of modern nationalism came into play with the campaign launched by Henry Vwhose everyday language was English and who, after Agincourt, became an English national hero.

France owed no small measure of its eventual success to the sentiment of nationalism that was arising throughout the country and that found its personification in the figure of Joan of Arc.

Early inthis young woman of surprising military genius, confident that she had a divinely inspired mission to save France, gained the confidence of the dauphin. Joan fell into English hands and at Rouen in was burned at the stake as a heretic, but the French armies continued to advance. Paris was retaken inand Rouen in ; bywhen Charles died, the English had been driven from all French territory except Calais, which was recaptured in His most formidable antagonist, Charles the Boldduke of Burgundy, who ruled virtually as an independent monarch, commanded for many years far more resources than the king of France himself.

But after the duke was defeated and killed in a battle against the Swiss inLouis was able to reunite Burgundy with France. When Louis's son Charles VIII united Brittany, the last remaining quasi-independent province, with the royal domain by his marriage to Anne of Brittanythe consolidation of the kingdom under one rule was complete. These wars developed into the first phase of a protracted imperialistic struggle between France and the house of Habsburg.

Although the Italian wars ended in a French defeat, they served to introduce the artistic and cultural influences of the Italian Renaissance into France on a large scale. Meanwhile, as the Reformation gained an increasing following in France, a bitter enmity developed between the great families that had espoused the Protestant or Huguenot cause and those that had remained Catholic.

The policy of the French monarchy was in general to suppress Protestantism at home while supporting it abroad as a counterpoise to Habsburg power. Under the last of the Valois kings, Charles IX r. Paris remained a stronghold of Catholicism, and on 23—24 Augusta militia led by the Duke of Guise slaughtered thousands of Protestants in the Massacre of St. Opposition leaders went into hiding or exile. Innocent and Paul G. Argelin, began operations in Colombia in February Invasions in, and met with no success.

On 22 JanuaryDuvalier named his son Jean-Claude to be his successor. Papa Doc died on 21 Apriland Jean-Claude, at the age of 19, became president for life the following day. The younger Duvalier sought to ease political tensions, encouraged tourism and foreign investment, and contributed to the beginnings of an economic revival. However, political arrests did not wholly cease, and there were severe economic reversals in the mid- and lates.

In Februaryelections to the National Assembly took place amid allegations of government fraud. Opposition groups were then arrested, tried, and convicted of subversion, but later released.

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In January and Marchtwo small exile groups tried unsuccessfully to overthrow the government by staging armed invasions. The first municipal elections of the Duvalier period were held in spring The voting resulted, for the most part, in victories for the government, partly because several opposition figures had been arrested during the campaign.

Jean-Claude proved to be an ineffectual leader and tensions mounted as the economy stagnated after When civil disorder began to break out in the mids, the president became increasingly reclusive. Henri Namphy, seized power. Namphy's declared purpose was to provide a transition to a democratically elected government. A constituent assembly, convened in Octoberdrafted a new constitution that was approved by referendum in March Hopes for the restoration of democracy soon faded.

The presidential election scheduled for November was postponed as gangs of thugs and soldiers killed at least 34 persons. The CNG attempted new elections and a new government, but those governments had no legitimacy at home or abroad.

The immediate aftermath of the CNG's takeover was euphoric. Political prisoners were released and the dreaded Tontons Macoute Duvalier's clandestine secret police were disbanded. But, he did not have the confidence of the military. Upset by his popularity and his foreign policy, which favored stronger hemispheric relations at the expense of US-Haitian relations, the military under Gen.

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From exile, Aristide did not relent, and appealed to international organizations for help. Aristide promptly appealed to the Clinton administration, even as he criticized US policy, and the Clinton administration responded with sanctions against the Haitian regime in May and June of However, the impasse persisted. A US invasion force was assembled and war seemed imminent. However, in the 11th hour, Clinton sent a special delegation, headed by former US president Jimmy Carterto negotiate a peaceful solution to the crisis.

American forces peacefully took control of the country and, in Octoberrestored Aristide to power. Returning to the country after a three-year absence, Aristide faced two major challenges: To cope with the security vacuum created by the departure of the military regime, UN peacekeeping forces arrived in March of In June elections for local and legislative office, though marred by mismanagement and requiring additional rounds of voting, remained free of state-sponsored violence and were generally regarded as a sign of success for the nation's fledgling democracy.

Although there was strong sentiment among many Haitians in favor of having Aristide remain in office beyond the end of his designated single term as president most of which had been usurped by military ruleUS support remained contingent on adhering to the terms of the constitution, which barred the president from seeking a second consecutive term.

In February he took office, becoming Haiti's second democratically elected president in the country's year history as an independent nation. The presence of both a UN peacekeeping force of over 1, and several hundred US troops was extended through November Even under relatively stable political conditions, Haiti's economic and security problems proved intractable. However, former president Aristide opposed the privatization plans and in formed a new political grouping of his own.

A wave of violence escalated and eventually claimed the life of the country's most prominent radio journalist, Jean Leopold Dominique, who was murdered in April In the presidential election held in Novemberformer president Aristide easily won the election with After taking office in earlyAristide was accused of developing a highly personalist and authoritarian government. He concentrated power in his own hands and failed to build and consolidate democratic institutions. In addition, international organizations expressed concern over the growing violence in the country and the little respect for human rights shown by the Aristide government.

Rebellion, escalating in earlycoupled with international pressure, led to the resignation of Aristide on 29 Februarywho then went into exile in South Africa. The same day, Boniface Alexandre, a Supreme Court justice, was sworn in as president of an interim government. The rebels, made up largely of personnel from the disbanded military, continued sporadic violence as UN forces attempted to control security by confiscating weapons; Aristide supporters also protested, sometimes in violent support for his return.

Rebels almost began another attempt to oust the interim government, but money began flowing into the country again when loans and aid were released after about a four-year freeze. The interim government was able to make some payments to appease the rebels, who demanded that the military be reinstated with 10 years of back pay, but organizational hurdles twice postponed elections originally slated for October.

On 7 Februarygeneral elections were held for the first time since Aristide was overthrown in On 14 Junethe voters were declared to have "almost unanimously" given their consent. He was granted power to dissolve the Legislative Assembly and the cabinet and to govern by decree in case of grave conflict. A constitutional amendment in January allowed the president to choose his successor. Jean-Claude Duvalier became president for life in April and was chief of state and head of government until early The constitution adopted in March established a president elected to a five-year term as head of state and restricted to no more than two nonconsecutive terms in office.

The head of government was to be the prime minister, appointed by the president from the party holding the majority in both houses of the legislature, which is made up of a member Senate and a Chamber of Deputies with 83 members.

Supporters of the Duvaliers were barred from holding political office for 10 years. Senators are elected for six years and deputies for four. Since its passage, the constitution was suspended in June and reinstated in March The leaders of the coup of October claimed to be observing the constitution and Marc Bazin was named head of a caretaker government.

But to all observers, nothing approaching a political system was present in Haiti until the restoration of the democratically elected Aristide government in late InAristide was elected president again, marking the first time that a democratically elected president completed his term without interruption and handed power over to another democratically elected leader. Inhowever, Aristide resigned following a violent uprising; he went into exile in South Africa.

The country was thrown into chaos and UN peacekeepers arrived to provide security for the country. The Liberals, composed mainly of the wealthier and better-educated mulatto minority, advocated legislative control of government, while the Nationalists, composed mainly of the lower- and middle-class black majority, favored a strong executive. The traditional mulatto hegemony, whose wealth was inherited from the departed French colonists, was ended by Duvalier, who used the mulattoes as scapegoats.

After Jean-Claude Duvalier became president insome political activity was allowed, but by most dissidents had again been silenced. In the legislative elections only one antigovernment candidate won a seat; he resigned in July The PDCH dropped out of the municipal election campaign in following the arrest of several party members on national security charges.

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In the mid legislative elections, all but one of the 18 vacated Senate seats were won by Lavalas candidates and the party also swept the election in the lower house, with 12 seats going to candidates of other groups, including independents. Informer president Bertrand Aristide formally registered a new party—Fanmi Lavalas FL—Lavalas Family —which broke ranks with the existing Lavalas government before the elections.

The legislative elections, initially scheduled for Junewere postponed repeatedly throughout the rest of and the first half of They were eventually held, together with the presidential elections, in November The FL dominated the elections, which were boycotted by the opposition.

Parliamentary elections were due to be held inbut they were not. Large protests were held against Aristide's rule, which eventually turned into a rebellion which, along with international pressure, ousted him on 29 February A first round of legislative elections was held on 7 Februarybut only two deputies were elected.

A second round of legislative elections was held on 21 April Other parties winning Senate seats included: In the Chamber of Deputies, seats by party were: Each department is headed by a prefect appointed by the central government.

Under the constitution, a commune is headed by an elected mayor, whose powers are strictly circumscribed. Local government is limited and all taxes collected by the communes are paid directly into the national treasury. The first open municipal elections in 26 years took place in Local mayoral and council elections were held in December By latemost government officials and authorities were loyal to Aristide and his Fanmi Lavalas party.

Opposition leaders were prevented from having power in local governments. Judges of the Court of Cassation are appointed by the president for year terms. Government prosecutors, appointed by the courts, act in both civil and criminal cases. There are also land, labor, and children's courts. Military courts function in both military and civilian cases when the constitution is suspended. The legal system is based upon the French Napoleonic Code.

Untilthe Haitian armed forces controlled law enforcement and public security even though the constitution called for separation of the police and military. The constitution was put into effect in Although the constitution also calls for an independent judiciary, all judges since have been appointed and removed at the will of the government and political pressures affect the judiciary at all levels.

The justices of peace issue warrants and adjudicate minor infractions. The Supreme Court deals with questions of procedure and constitutionality. Haiti accepts compulsory jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. Although Haiti was not among the eight nations to officially approve the CCJ, it did agree to use the CCJ for resolution of trade disputes. The armed forces and police were disbanded and they were replaced with a National Police Force, which had an estimated 5, members.

Since 1 June there have been no active armed forces, replaced instead, by a UN stabilization force, with 6, authorized personnel. A National Police Force of around 2, personnel remains operational. Haiti joined the WTO in During the —94 period of de facto military rule, the UN Mission in Haiti UNMIH was formedwith a total of 38 countries participating, to restore legitimate government and create a secure and stable political environment within the country. ECONOMY One of the richest colonial possessions based on its slave-operated sugar plantations, and site of the world's first successful slave revolt, Haiti is now one of the world's poorest countries, separated on the island of Hispanola from the prospering Dominican Republic by racial and linguistic divisions, and a river named Massacre.

The economy is basically agricultural: Some cottage industries were developed in the mid s, and in the late s and early s the mining sector, particularly bauxite and copper, grew to provide important export items. By the early s, however, mining was losing its importance, and light export-oriented industry, based on cheap labor, was the main growing area.

The informal market is growing including the black market transshipment of cocaine. InHaiti remains one of the 23 countries on the US government's list of major drug-producing or drug-transit countries. Haiti has suffered a series of natural and political setbacks. Hurricanes have often destroyed substantial parts of the coffee and sugar crops.

During —70, the real GDP declined annually by 0. The economy took a downward turn in the early s, growing by only 0. On 30 September a military coup headed by General Cedras deposed the democratically elected government of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. A UN-mediated agreement called for President Aristide's return to power, which occurred in InGDP growth reached a recent high of 4.

Inflation fell to InGDP growth moderated to 2. From toannual GDP growth averaged 2. After Aristide was voted out of office inthe prime minister resigned inand the legislature broke up in ; all these factors contributed to a cessation of economic reforms. A new agreement in November with the IMF was voted down by the legislature. Inthe US government George W. Bush administration continued to block aid to Haiti on condition that political reforms, specific arrests, and disarmament would first have to be carried out, and sent assistance to the Dominican Republic to help their military seal their border against Haitian refugees along the Massacre River.

Economic growth for was In the GDP growth rate recovered slightly at 0. Inflation went out of control, reaching Haiti suffers from lack of investments, and a severe trade deficit. In addition, civil conflict and natural disasters, inadded to the problems of an already impoverished country.