One Hundred Years of Solitude - Wikipedia
This is a list of articles about notable observed periods declared by various governments, groups and organizations to raise awareness of an issue, commemorate a group or event, or celebrate something. This list does not include official public holidays; for those, see List of The lists below include some days, month, years, and decades that have. Happy Days is a Taiwanese romantic-comedy television drama created and Also known as, Days to Meet Happiness. Genre, Romance. Christopher Paul Gardner (born February 9, ) is an American businessman, investor, He now travels all over the world days a year as a motivational speaker. Gardner has . He met with Gardner and gave him an introduction to the world of finance. Bridges .. "Chris Gardner, The Pursuit of Happiness" ( podcast).
In he became a University of Cambridge lecturer at Trinity College where he studied. He was considered for a Fellowship, which would give him a vote in the college government and protect him from being fired for his opinions, but was passed over because he was "anti-clerical", essentially because he was agnostic.
He was approached by the Austrian engineering student Ludwig Wittgensteinwho became his PhD student. Russell viewed Wittgenstein as a genius and a successor who would continue his work on logic. He spent hours dealing with Wittgenstein's various phobias and his frequent bouts of despair. This was often a drain on Russell's energy, but Russell continued to be fascinated by him and encouraged his academic development, including the publication of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in Wittgenstein was, at that time, serving in the Austrian Army and subsequently spent nine months in an Italian prisoner of war camp at the end of the conflict.
First World War[ edit ] During World War I, Russell was one of the few people to engage in active pacifist activities and inbecause of his lack of a Fellowship, he was dismissed from Trinity College following his conviction under the Defence of the Realm Act Russell played a significant part in the Leeds Convention in Junea historic event which saw well over a thousand "anti-war socialists" gather; many being delegates from the Independent Labour Party and the Socialist Party, united in their pacifist beliefs and advocating a peace settlement.
After the event, Russell told Lady Ottoline Morrell that, "to my surprise, when I got up to speak, I was given the greatest ovation that was possible to give anybody". The books were bought by friends; he later treasured his copy of the King James Bible that was stamped "Confiscated by Cambridge Police". A later conviction for publicly lecturing against inviting the US to enter the war on the United Kingdom's side resulted in six months' imprisonment in Brixton prison see Bertrand Russell's views on society in I found prison in many ways quite agreeable.
I had no engagements, no difficult decisions to make, no fear of callers, no interruptions to my work. I read enormously; I wrote a book, "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy" Hardy on the Trinity controversy and Russell's personal life[ edit ] InG. Hardy wrote a page pamphlet titled Bertrand Russell and Trinity — published later as a book by Cambridge University Press with a foreword by C.
Broad — in which he gave an authoritative account about Russell's dismissal from Trinity College, explaining that a reconciliation between the college and Russell had later taken place and gave details about Russell's personal life.
Hardy writes that Russell's dismissal had created a scandal since the vast majority of the Fellows of the College opposed the decision.
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The ensuing pressure from the Fellows induced the Council to reinstate Russell. In Januaryit was announced that Russell had accepted the reinstatement offer from Trinity and would begin lecturing from October.
In JulyRussell applied for a one year leave of absence; this was approved. He spent the year giving lectures in China and Japan. In Januaryit was announced by Trinity that Russell had resigned and his resignation had been accepted.
This resignation, Hardy explains, was completely voluntary and was not the result of another altercation. The reason for the resignation, according to Hardy, was that Russell was going through a tumultuous time in his personal life with a divorce and subsequent remarriage.
Russell contemplated asking Trinity for another one-year leave of absence but decided against it, since this would have been an "unusual application" and the situation had the potential to snowball into another controversy. InRussell was asked by the Council of Trinity College to give the Tarner Lectures on the Philosophy of the Sciences; these would later be the basis for one of Russell's best received books according to Hardy: The Analysis of Matter, published in I wish to make it plain that Russell himself is not responsible, directly or indirectly, for the writing of the pamphlet I wrote it without his knowledge and, when I sent him the typescript and asked for his permission to print it, I suggested that, unless it contained misstatement of fact, he should make no comment on it.
He agreed to this Between the wars[ edit ] In AugustRussell travelled to Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government to investigate the effects of the Russian Revolution. In his autobiography, he mentions that he found Lenin disappointing, sensing an "impish cruelty" in him and comparing him to "an opinionated professor".
He cruised down the Volga on a steamship. His experiences destroyed his previous tentative support for the revolution. For example, he told them that he heard shots fired in the middle of the night and was sure these were clandestine executions, but the others maintained that it was only cars backfiring. Bertrand Russell, having died according to the Japanese press, is unable to give interviews to Japanese journalists".
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Russell arranged a hasty divorce from Alys, marrying Dora six days after the divorce was finalised, on 27 September Russell supported his family during this time by writing popular books explaining matters of physicsethics, and education to the layman. From to the Russells divided their time between London and Cornwallspending summers in Porthcurno. The school was run from a succession of different locations, including its original premises at the Russells' residence, Telegraph House, near HartingWest Sussex.
On 8 July Dora gave birth to her third child Harriet Ruth. After he left the school inDora continued it until Russell's marriage to Dora grew increasingly tenuous, and it reached a breaking point over her having two children with an American journalist, Griffin Barry. On 18 JanuaryRussell married his third wife, an Oxford undergraduate named Patricia "Peter" Spencewho had been his children's governess since Russell and Peter had one son, Conrad Sebastian Robert Russell5th Earl Russell, who became a prominent historian and one of the leading figures in the Liberal Democrat party.
In he wrote in a personal letter: He concluded that Adolf Hitler taking over all of Europe would be a permanent threat to democracy.
Inhe adopted a stance toward large-scale warfare: He was appointed professor at the City College of New York CCNY inbut after a public outcry the appointment was annulled by a court judgment that pronounced him "morally unfit" to teach at the college due to his opinions, especially those relating to sexual moralitydetailed in Marriage and Morals The matter was however taken to the New York Supreme Court by Jean Kay who was afraid that her daughter would be harmed by the appointment, though her daughter was not a student at CCNY.
It is significant that synonyms for eudaimonia are living well and doing well. One important difference is that happiness often connotes being or tending to be in a certain pleasant state of mind.Kygo - Happy Now (ft. Sandro Cavazza) [Music Video Lyrics]
For example, when we say that someone is "a very happy person", we usually mean that they seem subjectively contented with the way things are going in their life. We mean to imply that they feel good about the way things are going for them.
In contrast, eudaimonia is a more encompassing notion than feeling happy since events that do not contribute to one's experience of feeling happy may affect one's eudaimonia. Eudaimonia depends on all the things that would make us happy if we knew of their existence, but quite independently of whether we do know about them. Ascribing eudaimonia to a person, then, may include ascribing such things as being virtuous, being loved and having good friends.
But these are all objective judgments about someone's life: This implies that a person who has evil sons and daughters will not be judged to be eudaimonic even if he or she does not know that they are evil and feels pleased and contented with the way they have turned out happy.
Conversely, being loved by your children would not count towards your happiness if you did not know that they loved you and perhaps thought that they did notbut it would count towards your eudaimonia. So eudaimonia corresponds to the idea of having an objectively good or desirable life, to some extent independently of whether one knows that certain things exist or not.
It includes conscious experiences of well being, success, and failure, but also a whole lot more. Nicomachean Ethics, book 1. Because of this discrepancy between the meaning of eudaimonia and happiness, some alternative translations have been proposed. Ross suggests "well-being" and John Cooper proposes "flourishing". These translations may avoid some of the misleading associations carried by "happiness" although each tends to raise some problems of its own.
In some modern texts therefore, the other alternative is to leave the term in an English form of the original Greek, as "eudaimonia".
What we know of Socrates ' philosophy is almost entirely derived from Plato's writings. Scholars typically divide Plato's works into three periods: They tend to agree also that Plato's earliest works quite faithfully represent the teachings of Socrates and that Plato's own views, which go beyond those of Socrates, appear for the first time in the middle works such as the Phaedo and the Republic.
This division will be employed here in dividing up the positions of Socrates and Plato on eudaimonia. As with all other ancient ethical thinkers, Socrates thought that all human beings wanted eudaimonia more than anything else. However, Socrates adopted a quite radical form of eudaimonism see above: Socrates is convinced that virtues such as self-control, courage, justice, piety, wisdom and related qualities of mind and soul are absolutely crucial if a person is to lead a good and happy eudaimon life.
Virtues guarantee a happy life eudaimonia. For example, in the Meno, with respect to wisdom, he says: In the Apology, Socrates clearly presents his disagreement with those who think that the eudaimon life is the life of honour or pleasure, when he chastises the Athenians for caring more for riches and honour than the state of their souls.
Good Sir, you are an Athenian, a citizen of the greatest city with the greatest reputation for both wisdom and power; are you not ashamed of your eagerness to possess as much wealth, reputation, and honors as possible, while you do not care for nor give thought to wisdom or truth or the best possible state of your soul [29e].
So Socrates' point that the Athenians should care for their souls means that they should care for their virtue, rather than pursuing honour or riches. Virtues are states of the soul. When a soul has been properly cared for and perfected it possesses the virtues. Moreover, according to Socrates, this state of the soul, moral virtue, is the most important good. The health of the soul is incomparably more important for eudaimonia than e.
Someone with a virtuous soul is better off than someone who is wealthy and honoured but whose soul is corrupted by unjust actions.
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This view is confirmed in the Crito, where Socrates gets Crito to agree that the perfection of the soul, virtue, is the most important good: And is life worth living for us with that part of us corrupted that unjust action harms and just action benefits? Or do we think that part of us, whatever it is, that is concerned with justice and injustice, is inferior to the body?
It is much more valuable…? Much more… 47e—48a Here Socrates argues that life is not worth living if the soul is ruined by wrongdoing. A person who is not virtuous cannot be happy, and a person with virtue cannot fail to be happy. We shall see later on that Stoic ethics takes its cue from this Socratic insight. Plato[ edit ] Plato's great work of the middle period, the Republic, is devoted to answering a challenge made by the sophist Thrasymachusthat conventional morality, particularly the 'virtue' of justice, actually prevents the strong man from achieving eudaimonia.
Thrasymachus's views are restatements of a position which Plato discusses earlier on in his writings, in the Gorgias, through the mouthpiece of Callicles. The basic argument presented by Thrasymachus and Callicles is that justice being just hinders or prevents the achievement of eudaimonia because conventional morality requires that we control ourselves and hence live with un-satiated desires.
This idea is vividly illustrated in book 2 of the Republic when Glaucon, taking up Thrasymachus' challenge, recounts a myth of the magical ring of Gyges. According to the myth, Gyges becomes king of Lydia when he stumbles upon a magical ring, which, when he turns it a particular way, makes him invisible, so that he can satisfy any desire he wishes without fear of punishment.
When he discovers the power of the ring he kills the king, marries his wife and takes over the throne. The thrust of Glaucon's challenge is that no one would be just if he could escape the retribution he would normally encounter for fulfilling his desires at whim. But if eudaimonia is to be achieved through the satisfaction of desire, whereas being just or acting justly requires suppression of desire, then it is not in the interests of the strong man to act according to the dictates of conventional morality.
This general line of argument reoccurs much later in the philosophy of Nietzsche. Throughout the rest of the Republic, Plato aims to refute this claim by showing that the virtue of justice is necessary for eudaimonia. In brief, Plato argues that virtues are states of the soul, and that the just person is someone whose soul is ordered and harmonious, with all its parts functioning properly to the person's benefit.
In contrast, Plato argues that the unjust man's soul, without the virtues, is chaotic and at war with itself, so that even if he were able to satisfy most of his desires, his lack of inner harmony and unity thwart any chance he has of achieving eudaimonia.
Plato's ethical theory is eudaimonistic because it maintains that eudaimonia depends on virtue. On Plato's version of the relationship, virtue is depicted as the most crucial and the dominant constituent of eudaimonia.
Aristotle[ edit ] Aristotle's account is articulated in the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics. This conception of eudaimonia derives from Aristotle's essentialist understanding of human naturethe view that reason logos sometimes translated as rationality is unique to human beings and that the ideal function or work ergon of a human being is the fullest or most perfect exercise of reason.
Basically, well being eudaimonia is gained by proper development of one's highest and most human capabilities and human beings are "the rational animal". According to Aristotle, eudaimonia actually requires activityaction, so that it is not sufficient for a person to possess a squandered ability or disposition. Eudaimonia requires not only good character but rational activity. Aristotle clearly maintains that to live in accordance with reason means achieving excellence thereby.
Moreover, he claims this excellence cannot be isolated and so competencies are also required appropriate to related functions. For example, if being a truly outstanding scientist requires impressive math skills, one might say "doing mathematics well is necessary to be a first rate scientist". From this it follows that eudaimonia, living well, consists in activities exercising the rational part of the psyche in accordance with the virtues or excellency of reason [b22—a20].
Which is to say, to be fully engaged in the intellectually stimulating and fulfilling work at which one achieves well-earned success. The rest of the Nicomachean Ethics is devoted to filling out the claim that the best life for a human being is the life of excellence in accordance with reason.
Since reason for Aristotle is not only theoretical but practical as well, he spends quite a bit of time discussing excellence of character, which enables a person to exercise his practical reason i.
Aristotle's ethical theory is eudaimonist because it maintains that eudaimonia depends on virtue. However, it is Aristotle's explicit view that virtue is necessary but not sufficient for eudaimonia.
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So, a person who is hideously ugly or has "lost children or good friends through death" b5—6or who is isolated, is unlikely to be eudaimon. In this way, "dumb luck" chance can preempt one's attainment of eudaimonia. Epicurus[ edit ] Epicurus identified eudaimonia with the life of pleasure. Epicurus ' ethical theory is hedonistic.