The child and the family: interdependence in developmental pathways
According to the UNICEF report on the well-being of children in mathematics, and thinking skills; children from father absent homes are more likely to -future relationships (father absent children tend to enter partnerships earlier, are .. the social problems enumerated in the article are connected to father absence. Becoming a Dad: Advice for Expectant Fathers opportunities to track your baby's development help you both begin to feel connected to your. This indicates the style of relating to people in general, and to the mother Here we see how the baby responds to the experience of being left .. While Bowlby is known as the father of attachment, a prodigiously .. A segregated unit of mathematicians born of desperation during World War II became the.
Fathers are central to the emotional well-being of their children; they are are capable caretakers and disciplinarians. Studies show that if your child's father is affectionate, supportive, and involved, he can contribute greatly to your child's cognitive, language, and social development, as well as academic achievement, a strong inner core resource, sense of well-being, good self-esteem, and authenticity.
How fathers influence our relationships. Those early patterns of interaction with father are the very patterns that will be projected forward into all relationships Girls will look for men who hold the patterns of good old dad, for after all, they know how "to do that. Girls will look for, in others, what they have experienced and become familiar with in childhood. Because they've gotten used to those familial and historic behavioral patterns, they think that they can handle them in relationships.
Boys on the other hand, will model themselves after their fathers. They will look for their father's approval in everything they do, and copy those behaviors that they recognize as both successful and familiar. Thus, if dad was abusive, controlling, and dominating, those will be the patterns that their sons will imitate and emulate.
However, if father is loving, kind, supportive, and protective, boys will want to be that. Human beings are social animals and we learn by modeling behavior.
In fact, all primates learn how to survive and function successfully in the world through social imitation. Those early patterns of interaction are all children know, and it is those patterns that effect how they feel about themselves, and how they develop.
It is impossible to over-estimate the importance of dad. For example, girls who have good relationships with their fathers tend to do better in mathand boys who have actively involved fathers tend to have better grades and perform better on achievement tests.
And well-bonded boys develop securely with a stable and sustained sense of self. Who we are and who we are to be, we are becoming, and fathers are central to that outcome. Only 20 percent of American households consist of married couples with children.
Filling the gap are family structures of all kinds, with dads stepping up to the plate and taking on a myriad of roles. When they are engaged, fathers can really make a difference. He may be classically married, single, divorced, widowed, gay, straight, adoptive, step-father, a stay-at-home dad, or the primary family provider.
What is important is that he is involved. Mechanistic stand against organismic concepts. Another obstacle to gain quick access to relevant knowledge is the often-mentioned dissimilarity of socialization practices in different societies and cultures. Of course, these differences should not be neglected or simplified. However, under a relationship-quality perspective, culture-specific patterns of child socialization might be linked to more overarching aspects of necessary adaptation and intergenerational continuation.
Patterns of parent-child relationships may differ among cultures, but they all have to meet a number of universal prerequisites to secure the child's basic needs and to socialize the new member into the common canon of value and norms which links the present with the next generation.
A tentative look into the future of family research A general and overarching perspective should be emphasized, when future research on family as developing systems is regarded: As a tentative guideline for future research in the area of family and family development, seven points are listed below: Family research should strongly focus on the analysis of relationships, their quality, history, flexiblity and resiliency under stress.
Nonrelational aspects, such as single members' temperaments, traits, or pathologies should be linked to the various aspects of a family's relationship quality.
In family studies, both verbal and nonverbal exchanges in a relationship should be analyzed. Exchange about objects, persons, and situation is only one aspect in the communication between two people. The other aspect encompasses the regulation of the relationship between the two communicating people, its symmetry or asymmetry and, linked to it, the range of information that can be exchanged.
Although contents and relationship are negotiated in both verbal and nonverbal modes, nonverbal information is crucial for gaining a comprehensive interpretation of meanings conveyed in verbal communication. All relationships in a family have to be regarded when research about families is conducted. By the same token, also all constellations such as dyads, triads, tetrads and so forth must be considered when relationship patterns within families are investigated. As studies comparing dyadic and triadic interactions have shown, dynamics between the same persons may vary considerably in different constellations.
Family research should always keep as a working hypothesis that families are institutions in which, among other functions, the production, maintenance, and transmission of meaning and culture are central.
Thus, the production of meaning, the quality of flow of meaning between family members could be a favorite topic. When analyzing communication and interaction within the family we should try to create more variables depicting relationship characteristics on a molar level. Micro-level analyses, useful for specific questions and elaborations, very often seem to lead to elementaristic and reductionistic interpretations of complex and time-specific behavior patterns.
Research could take more effort to look after something like a depth-dimension in human communication. As a research strategy, family research could concentrate on specific phases where transitions have to be mastered. During a transition phase, the families' modes to handle different interests and divergent problem-solving strategies can be observed in full detail.
A focus on the family's attempts to keep an old or to look for a new state of equilibrium could help better characterize a family's mode to negotiate extant relationships in everyday communication. New methodological approaches are needed. The follow-up of families through several stages of their lifetime needs to take into account the specific modalities of communication in order to segregate relevant from irrelevant aspects and events.
Both larger representative samples and more detailed longitudinal case studies which can be located in the larger samples are needed. A final thought A look forward seems to be rather meaningless if there is no comparison with a look in to the other direction.
Therefore, at the end of this contribution, two general perspectives will be addressed which were formulated by two philosophers who were already mentioned to at the beginning. Both have tried to emphasize the specific role of communication with others and the importance of culture as essential aspects for understanding human nature and behavior.
Both are well known for their critique of an all too mentalistic or cognitivistic approach in the human sciences. Giambattista Vico was a philosopher who made every effort to keep alive a tradition which seemed to be lost after Descartes and during the times of Enlightenment and Rationalism.
In his book The new scienceVico argued against the extreme reductionism in Descartes' "cogito" as the only sign of truth for human existence. The discursive production and maintenance of meaning, our main focus in family research, leads us perhaps far back in the history of epistemology.
It carries us into an era of philosophical thinking which was, under a today's perspective, fundamentally different from our view on reality and logic. We enter the period before Descartes, the time of early Humanism and Renaissance, when law and medical sciences were the prototypes for finding general solutions in the sciences. By this definition they were expressing rather a fundamental moral imperative. Reason is a very inadequate term with which to comprehend the forms of man's cultural life in all their richness and varieties.
Some current longitudinal research conducted, for example, at Harvard and in Minneapolis, does show promising tendencies. Stuart Hauser published just a first attempt of his single case continuation on protective factors which might open a window for new perspectives on relevant factors of family life for individual developmental progress.
The Minneapolis longitudinal study which follows children and their attachment status in infancy over adolescence into their establishments of romantic relationships during early adulthood represents another promising attempt to gain information about the impact of relationship quality on the course of individual development Collins, Moreover, family narratives have gained new interest in developmental psychology during the last years. Parents' ways to talk about their own history, their families of origin, is an important part of the context, in which a child grows up.
In a recent publication, Fiese, Sameroff, Grotevant, Wamboldt, Dickstein, and Fravel proposed dimensions like coherence, interaction, and relationship beliefs as relevant aspects for distinguishing families' communication contexts.
Even after Descartes and his reductionistic cognitive solution for the explanation of human existence, we hopefully still find rich thinking alive in science for a more advanced and open vision of the human beings in their interrelatedness with an intergenerational and cultural context.
A chapter in the natural history of consciousness. Mental development in the child and the race. A reinterpretation of the direction of effects in studies of socialization. Psychological Review, 75, A modern introduction to the family.
The Important Role of Dad
Development Psychology, 17, The determinants of coparenting in families with toddler boys: Spousal differences and daily hassles. Child Development, 66, Modern theories of development: An introduction to theoretical biology.
The personality of children prior to divorce: Child Development, 57, The general systems approach to the family.
The family as a unity of interacting personalities. Social cognition, joint attention, and communicative competence from 9 to 15 months of age. An essay on man.
An introduction to a philosophy of human culture. Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce on children in Great Britain and the United States. Parents' effects on children's development: A decade of progress? Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 9, Late adolescent competence in developmental perspective: Issues from a year study.
Men's involvement in parenthood: Identifying the antecedents and understanding the barriers. Changes in marriage during the transition to parenthood. Current theory and research pp. When partners become parents: The big life change for couples. Marriage, parenting, and child development. Children and marital conflict: The impact of family dispute and resolution.
On the origin of species. Exploring children's security as a mediator of the link between marital relations and child adjustment. Child Development, 69, Marriage and family development. Interparental conflict and the children of discord and divorce. Psychological Bulletin, 92, Marriage, divorce, and children's adjustment.
Parental divorce and children's well-being: A focus on resilience. Interrelatedness of marital and parent-child relations: Psychological Bulletin, Basic modes of social interaction: Their emergence and patterning during the first two years of life.
Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 19, Patterns of marital conflict predict children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 29, Marital interaction patterns and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors: The search for mechanisms.
The effect of parents' marital satisfaction on young adults' adaptation: Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, The stories that families tell: Narrative coherence, narrative interaction, and relationship beliefs.
Effect of marital discord on young children's peer interaction and health. Developmental Psychology, 25, How families communicate emotionally. New directions for child development: Adolescent development in the family.
Patterns of interaction in family relationships and the development of identity exploration in adolescence. Child Development, 56, Adolescent lives across time and generations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 9, Adolescents and their families. Marital conflict and adolescent distress: The role of adolescent awareness.
Child Development, 68, Where is the child's environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, Human development and education. American Psychologist, 34, Journal of Early Adolescence, 3, Research on adolescents and their families: Damon Series and Vol. Adolescent health and social behavior pp. Changes in parent-child relationships with the birth of the second child. Marriage and Family Review, 12, Linking infant development-in-context research to the investigation of life-span family development.
Differences in parents' cooperation patterns after the arrival of a second child. Observation and the longitudinal approach in infancy research.
Perspectives from German-speaking countries pp. Differential experiences within the family during adolescence: Consistencies of relationship assessments and concrete communication behaviors over time. Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie, 45, Description of a coding system for the assessment of communication behavior in family dyads].
Materialien aus der Bildungsforschung, 57, Berlin: Talk to mom and dad, and listen to what is in between. Forgotten contributors to child development. Human Development, 18, The role of the father in child development.Every kid needs a champion - Rita Pierson
Gesetz und Experiment in der Psychologie [Law and experiment in psychology]. Mother, father, and infant as an interaction system. Parent-infant and husband-wife interactions observed at age five months. The family's construction of reality. The universality of the family: Journal of Marriage and the Family, 27, The social and socializing infant. Family interaction and transaction. Parents' well-being at their children's transition to adolescence.
University of Chicago Press. Report on the development of a screening instrument for the assessment of adolescents' relationship with their parents]. Allgemeine Psychologie auf personalistischer Grundlage [General psychology on a personalistic basis]. The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. Confidence, confinding and acts of meaning in the first year.
The Differential Impact of Early Father and Mother Involvement on Later Student Achievement
Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere [Environment and inner world of animals]. Hierarchical grouping to optimize an objective function.
Journal of the American Statistical Association, 58, Social construction of adolescence by adolescents and parents. Adolescent development in the family pp. Further thoughts on social construction in families. Journal of Family Psychology, 3,