Terra e Episode 24 Discussion - Forums - index-art.info
I'm writing all this because I'm falling for Toward the Terra. Understandably, the Mu just want to live in peace, but typically, . He was such an interesting personality and I really wanted him to be saved by Jomy in the end, but that . in the manga and Jomy seems to have a more distance relationship with. True Ending: Choose to go back to Terra while romantic with Leanna and picked the best relationship options and did perfect run for temple. index-art.info: Toward the Terra Part 2 (vol ): Osamu Yamasaki: Movies & TV. The middle of the series focuses more on the end of Keith's original arc and the This relationship is perfectly reflected in both Jomy (the Mu leader Soldier).
However, the response of the PS is distinctive in looking for forms of inclusion, and in its valuing of difference and diversity. Curricular programme The PS represents an attempt to radically alter the nature of schooling. Since school is an important source of exclusion, it is also a key site for reversing the situation. Interview with Luciana To ensure the full citizenship of all members of society, therefore, school must be made inclusive, and must function in a way that will allow all students to participate outside in the wider society.
The transformation that the PS intends for the school aims to be deep and comprehensive: These are a means of combating the chronic levels of grade repetition among certain social groups, ensuring that students progress together as an age group Dalben The traditional eight grades are replaced by three cycles of three years the extra year enabling students to start at the age of six rather than seven.
The PS does try to make other provision in conjunction with the cycles, to provide extra support for those who are falling behind their peers and those with special educational needs. The proposal is that this curriculum should be constructed from the basis of a collective definition of the themes that represent the problems put forward by the current situation, not in parallel to the curriculum subjects, but transversal to them…. It is necessary that a dialogical relationship is established in the classroom, where all can put ideas forward, ask, exchange, negotiate meanings, share.
It is necessary to break with the monological pedagogy in which only the teacher speaks…. As stated in SMED The instruments of evaluation, however varied they may be, must reflect the philosophy of the Plural School, being an expression of a pedagogical relationship based on dialogue and the collective search for solutions.
In this way, the evaluative process ceases to be an instrument of sanction, becoming an instrument of the construction of a more plural educative process. Another element is the importance given to the participation of students in school: It is necessary to continue calling the pupils to participation. The concern of the PS for social exclusion relates to a number of factors. Firstly, there are socio-economic ones — the poorest in society, many of whom live in favelas, who have traditionally been unable to attend school.
There is also significant focus on the issue of race, particularly the discrimination and exclusion of the Afro-descendent population emphasized in the interview with Luciana.
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To a lesser extent, there is also a concern with issues of gender e. However, an area which stands out in the programme of the PS is the attempt to integrate those with special needs and disabilities into the mainstream classroom. This is pioneering work in Brazil, where these students customarily attend special schools or receive no education at all. LIBRAS Brazilian sign language translators are employed so that deaf students are able to accompany the lesson within the same classroom.
The municipality runs a Centre for Pedagogical Support for the Visually Impaired as well as a computer programme to give blind and visually impaired students access to IT. There is also pedagogical support for students normally considered to have behaviour problems Barroso School To offer to the pupils the conditions and possibilities for living together in plurality, considering the differences between races, classes and gender, developing attitudes of respect and mutual consideration.
Both, with strong Freirean influence, aim to introduce dialogue in the classroom, to install participatory structures so that students and the community are involved in decision-making, and to integrate local and academic knowledge. There are also more concrete steps to include all types of students in the same classroom. However, there is much less emphasis than in the MST on the development of political knowledge, skills and values that will enable current and future political action and participation.
All these proposals note that school will develop these collective subjects in as far as they make them participants in the construction of humanized school spaces. Importantly, these means appear to be adopted on the basis of a moral imperative, rather than empirical evidence to show that they are appropriate for achieving particular ends. The proposal of general objectives for the curriculum, consistent with an educational framework which aims to value diversity, plurality and the differences of socio-cultural experiences, must start with a critical analysis of the concept of curriculum….
These orientations are both epistemological social interactionist constructivist and political social inclusion. However, there are occasions on which means appear to be derived in ways other than being consistent with these principles. For example, there is acknowledgement of empirical research as a basis for curriculum design: We start from the supposition, confirmed by the human sciences, that within the period of basic education there are smaller cycles of socialization and formation that must be respected and pedagogically organized.
There are also other occasions e. There is little evidence, on the other hand, of educational activities being organized to achieve separate and future goals in creating democratic citizens: It is run by the Regional Electoral Tribunals TREs in each state, usually in partnership with selected schools and other civil society partners.
The initiative is characterized by strong support for liberal multi-party democracy. However, it sees that the existence of formal structures does not guarantee a successful democracy, and that there are serious problems with its functioning in Brazil. These problems are principally those of electoral corruption and clientilism, and are caused by a combination of unscrupulous, self-interested politicians and an apathetic and ill-informed electorate.
As Amanda, a co-ordinator in the Federal District, states: Our country is suffering various crises in the political sphere because of a lack of awareness.
So we need to motivate these pupils to reflect more, not to exchange their vote for basic provisions…. Interview with Amanda The system, according to this view, is basically good, and if the people can act in a moral, responsible and critical manner, then society will function justly and well.
The necessity of political participation for all citizens is made clear in the introduction to a storybook for schools created by the TRE in the Federal District: We understand that school has a mission to transmit basic knowledge in relation to the matters outlined above [citizenship, rights and duties etc.
In relation to this electoral participation, there is a strong emphasis on political parties and their policies rather than candidates responding to relatively weak awareness of the former 16 and a strong dependence on the personalities of the latter in Brazilian politics. As the Roraima document states: The initiative is careful, however, not to favour any specific political party: Furthermore, VF does not see elements of individual and group identity as being of significance for citizenship.
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- Terra e... Episode 24 Discussion
The citizen in this initiative is understood to be the possessor of a set of rights protected by law, and a set of duties to respect the law, irrespective of differences. While there is opposition to discrimination against particular groups or individuals, there is no attempt to address the exclusion of particular groups by providing differential treatment: In addition, and in contrast to the other two initiatives, citizenship is to a large extent seen as a future state, one attained once formal right to vote has been granted, and for which children must prepare themselves6.
Curricular programme Voter of the Future, therefore, is characterized by an adherence to the structures and principles of liberal democracy, with an awareness of the current abuses and malfunctionings of the system, and proposing in their place upholding of the law and active, responsible citizenship.
Education is seen as a means for individuals to develop the necessary knowledge and moral qualities to participate effectively, and keep those in power accountable. VF is different from the other two initiatives in that it is not a full curricular framework, instead consisting of particular activities run in schools at specific periods of the year. It therefore inserts itself into an existing school curriculum, without attempting to transform it.
Learning to be a Citizen TSE This analysis will assess the three types of activities outlined here, as well as a fourth, mock elections. The first recommends for teachers to: Organize the children and adolescents in a circle and ask each to speak about the last experience of exercising citizenship he or she had, describing the space or environment in which the scene occurred. The other three workshops follow a similar format, focusing on the following themes: However, the most prominent activity in the programme is the mock election.
These elections are sometimes for school officials such as class representatives, but the programme literature e. In the Federal District, the mock election is intended to take place as follows: The pupils will organize themselves in parties and will defend their public policy through campaigns, within and outside the school, through drama, music, marches, among other things, in interdisciplinary work.
At the end of the year, on a day to be confirmed, there will be an election of the parties of public policy, using the voting machines. On 18 the day of election there will be a counting of the votes and the immediate announcement of the winning party. TRE-DF A few of the students also have the chance to develop their skills not only as voters but also as candidates, preparing and delivering a political campaign.
In some cases there are parallel elections for the real candidates at municipal, state and federal levels. Another important form of activity in the VF is the competition. Poetry, music and art competitions are intended to develop skills of general expression and communication. In some cases, the visit includes some form of debate. The official curriculum of VF is clearly different to that of the MST or PS in that it contains very little reference to structures or relations in the institution, or to teaching methods, pedagogy or pedagogical relations in class.
The absence of these elements from the official curricular programme does not, of course, mean that they are any less present or influential. In terms of participation, the programme does not prioritize the involvement of the community, nor is there is mention of involving students in the construction of educational activities, although their opinions are seen to be valued in classroom activities.
Relating means and ends Voter of the Future has a clear notion of its own aims and objectives, and states these explicitly. It also distinguishes these from the means of achieving them. However, there is no discussion of, or indication given as to the link between the two. Unlike the other two initiatives, VF does not require harmony between the underlying principles and the way the educational activities are carried out. It has a set of goals in terms of knowledge, skills and values to be developed in students, and establishes a set of educational activities to achieve them separation of ends and means.
The latter largely consist of simulations, whereby competences developed in the school can be later transferred to real-life situations e. As stated in Santos Dumont School programme It can be argued that there is a certain arbitrariness about the choice of educational activities in VF — that there simply is not a justifiable link between ends and means.
There appears, for example, to be little justification for choosing essay competitions as a means of promoting citizenship, rather than, say, preparing a group presentation on the subject apart from the incentive to participation provided by the prize. On the other hand, it might be argued that there is a form of harmony in action.
Since VF can be seen to have competition and competitiveness as key components of its political belief system rather than the co-operativism of the MST it therefore makes sense to have competitive educational activities. In the same way, the fragmented and individualist nature of its curricular programme can be seen to stem from its fragmented and individualist understanding of citizenship. Towards a theory of the ends-means relationship in curriculum These cases highlight two key aspects of the relationship between ideals and curricular programmes: Three basic forms can be observed: In this form, aside from the necessary relationship of causality, there is no other required point of contact between the overarching ideals and the educational activities employed to achieve them.
It is important to note that a single curriculum can simultaneously display a number of forms of proximity and rationale. Examples of this form elsewhere can be seen in Davies in relation to the promotion of economic understanding in citizenship education, and Ryder in relation to citizenship and science. With the harmony form, however, elements considered important in the ends are embodied in the means. As discussed above, this form is shown strongly in the PS and MST, whereby means conform to principles contained in the ends such as inclusion or co-operativism.
Harmony is seen commonly in efforts to democratize schooling e. It can also appear in a negative form, as seen in the correspondence of hierarchical oppression in schools and capitalist society of Bowles and Gintis Here, the ends become means, in a cycle of continuing development. Unification can also manifest itself in another way, when the process of learning itself becomes the end, the experience of opening the mind being seen as an ideal state of being this form is not observed in these three initiatives, but is common elsewhere, e.
We can therefore distinguish between two forms of unification: It might be argued that the harmony forms above are also examples of unification, since participation in processes of deliberation in school, for example, is an actual exercising of citizenship, school being an arena of society. However, it is important to maintain some distinction between activities inside and outside educational institutions, since the latter are not just one of many social arenas, but are usually established for the purpose of preparing people for different forms of participation in the wider society.
In addition to proximity, the relationship involves some form of rationale or justification. In some cases this is a deliberate and conscious justification; in others, the means are chosen without a clear consciousness of their relationship to the ends, but nevertheless with an unconscious rationale.
The following forms can be derived: This might be based on personal experience: Or it might be based on rigorous scientific research. While the former was present in both the MST and the PS, the latter form was rarely observed in the three initiatives. In contrast, some elements are adopted due to the weight of tradition or authority, with means adopted on the basis of continuity with past practices, or faith in a perceived source of wisdom, such as Paulo Freire.
index-art.info: Toward the Terra Part 2 (vol ): Osamu Yamasaki: Movies & TV
Here, the judgment of the teacher or curriculum designer is subordinated to that of the source of authority. In some cases, the distinction between empirical evidence and authority is not clear-cut. Academic research, itself consisting of empirical studies, is often accepted by others on the basis of the authority of the body or individuals conducting the research, not on the empirical evidence itself as seen in the PS.
With the moral imperative there is not necessarily any empirical evidence that the means will achieve the ends: This raises an intriguing scenario: The choice of mock elections as an educational activity in VF is based neither on empirical evidence, authority nor moral imperative.
It stems from a perceived connection of necessity between the practice of a skill and its acquisition. Since it is seen not to be logically possible for someone to be able to exercise a skill without having first practiced it, valued activities must be transferred from society into school. There is here an appearance of unification between ends and means, since the student is learning to do something while doing it, although in reality there is a separation of training and subsequent performance.
Within this, there are different levels of simulation. This is very close to unification. This is a more distant level of simulation. As seen above, this form is in fact recommended by Tyler The scheme of forms of rationale can be applied to all types of curriculum. In relation to a common categorization of curriculum design e. All these forms of rationale are relevant primarily to the separation and harmony modes, since unification requires no rationale it is justified by being identical to the end.
The purpose of this framework is to elucidate the ways in which curricula relate to overarching aims in practice: There is no attempt here to evaluate the efficacy or desirability of different forms of proximity and rationale. Such judgements would depend on complex epistemological and moral questions that cannot be fully 22 addressed in this paper. In any event, it is important first to develop a clear understanding of the different forms, and map the relationships between them.
This is an initial, exploratory study, and the theoretical framework presented here must be developed by further empirical research and theoretical discussion. A number of other questions could be addressed. One of them is the location of praxis within the framework, being a dialectic of understanding and action, in which means are not decided beforehand, but are developed during the process of implementation.
The discussion above tends to assume a monodirectional movement from ends to means, but in reality the former can also be modified in light of the latter, as argued by Dewey and more recently by Dwight and Garrison and Suissa Further analysis also needs to be made of the relationship between elements of proximity and those of rationale, the position of knowledge, skills and values in the framework, and the significance of aims being conscious and explicit or not.
Understanding the complex relationship between ideals and curricular programmes guards us from two pitfalls in approaches to curriculum.
The first of these involves a denial or lack of awareness of the existence of ends and means in education, through a belief either that the establishment of clear aims is sufficient in itself, or that practice can be engaged in without thought for ends. In the second, attention is paid to both ends and means, but a simplistic notion of the derivation of the latter from the former is assumed, usually a purely empirical link from scientific research, or one of logical necessity.
I would like to thank Elaine Unterhalter for her support and guidance. Notes 1 Primary or fundamental schools in Brazil have eight grades, corresponding officially to the age group. Lessons from the Chalk Face. Barroso School Rede de Trocas. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 35 2— Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Philosophy of Education Society of Great Britain. Editora Vozes Caldart, R. Journal of Curriculum Studies.
Journal of Teacher Education, 54 1 Teachers College Record, 5 Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Journal of Education Policy, 17 2 Journal of Philosophy of Education, 18 1 Journal of Curriculum Studies, 29 4 Theory and Practice 5th ed. The School Review, 78 2 Imprensa Nacional de Cuba. International Journal of Educational Development, 26 5 More Than Mind Control: It's what Mother Eliza does to younger Keith in the anime.
Tony after he accidentally kills Matsuka. In later episodes, Keith has shifted to this from Knight Templar. Terra, at the very end, during the epilogue. What is it with the headphones? No Hugging, No Kissing: Even if there is plenty of Ho Yaythe situation is far too Serious Business for any romance between the main characters except for Tony in the manga, who gets together with Artella, although she ends up dying soon afterwards.
However, this isn't the case in the movie, where Jomy is Tony's dad. The Megiddo Averted in the manga, where the weapons used are actually described as being nuclear.
The Megiddo was invented for the anime. Even in the anime there is still a very very brief mention of arming all weapons, "even nuclear ones" early on in the series. But it's not at all important to the plot, and is easy to miss — curiously, the casual use of nuclear weapons is given no attention at all, probably because it's in space.
Keith and Tony, though the second one only in anime.