self-report measures of Big Five and other personality traits, and for a subset of participants, () developed the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS) to assess depressive episodes, substance use disorders, and higher rates of and its relationship to psychopathology has been a point of contro-. Spanish-language measures of bipolar disorder are needed to facilitate this type of .. The Hypomanic Personality Scale, the Big Five, and their relationship to. A large study by Barnett and colleagues comprising two personality during euthymia in terms of the NEO Five-Factor model . Patients with type II have been reported to score considerably higher on neuroticism-related scales than depressive episodes, of hypomanic/manic episodes, or of a suicide.
SSP is an instrument explicitly developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders [ 1718 ]. We used outcome data from the 2-year follow-up. Methods Participants Data were collected within the framework of St. Virtually all new bipolar patients within the specified catchment area were referred for evaluation to this outpatient unit during the recruitment period. Consecutive new outpatients and continuing patients at the unit were invited to participate provided that they were diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
The inclusion criteria for the St. Exclusion criteria were inability to complete the standard clinical assessment or incapability of providing informed consent. The ADE and M. To minimize risk of inter-rater bias, a best-estimate diagnostic decision was made based on all information available at admission by a consensus panel of experienced board certified psychiatrists specialized in bipolar disorder.
All available sources of information, encompassing patient interview, case records, and-if available-interview with next of kin were utilized in the diagnostic assessment. The ADE also captures age at first symptom, the number of affective episodes, marital-and job status. Overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning was assessed with Global Assessment of Functioning GAF [ 23 ].
For ethical reasons, patients continued to take their prescribed medications at the time of assessment. After enrollment, patients underwent annual clinical assessments.
Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome
The current study employed data from the 2-year follow-up. We also used the total number of sick leave days for the same 2-year period as a measure of absence from work because of the illness. Details about the recruitment of healthy controls have been described previously [ 26 ].BIPOLAR: 1960s Real Psychiatric Interview with Hypomanic Biology Teacher
They were first subjected to a preliminary telephone screening to exclude severe mental health issues, neurological problems, and substance abuse. All eligible controls were then thoroughly examined in person by a psychiatrist using the M. The project was approved by Stockholm Regional Ethical Review Board and a written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
It was initially constructed as a tool to find biological correlates of personality traits predisposing for psychiatric disorder. SSP has been evaluated in several large samples comprising both healthy volunteers and psychiatric patients in Sweden.
The SSP is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 91 items, grouped into 13 scales, each based on the response to seven items. The response format is 1 does not apply at all to 4 applies completely.
Factor analytic work have shown that the scales are conveniently summarized by three overarching factors: Neuroticism Lack of assertiveness, Mistrust, Somatic trait anxiety, Psychic trait anxiety, Stress susceptibility and EmbittermentAggressiveness Social desirability, Physical trait aggression, Verbal trait aggression and Trait irritabilityand Disinhibition Detachment, Adventure seeking and Impulsiveness [ 17 ].
To investigate overall group differences independent variable in Neuroticism- Aggressiveness- and Disinhibition-related scales dependent variableswe performed multivariate one-way between-groups analyses of variance MANCOVA.
Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome
When significant results are obtained with this multivariate test of significance, further information on the relation of each dependent variable can be investigated. Values can range between 0 and 1 and according to guidelines proposed by Cohen0. Of the 88 participants retained for the analyses, Thirty-one percent of the participants were freshman, In terms of ethnicity, Participants met with the experimenter in small groups.
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Participants were told that they would be completing English and Spanish versions of various questionnaires. All participants completed written informed-consent procedures with none declining to participate in the study. Each participant completed the language comprehension test noted above and then completed computerized versions of the measures.
Spanish-Language Measures of Mania and Depression
The language-order of the administration was varied, with some participants completing the English versions first and others completing the Spanish versions first.
Within each language, however, the order of instrument administration was the same. To reduce the possibility that a participant would remember his or her response to any particular item, participants first completed all the measures in one language before completing the measures in the second language.
Translation of Measures We took several steps to obtain Spanish versions of the measures. A medical translator was hired to provide an initial translation of all measures into Spanish. To ensure that different Hispanic groups could readily understand items, a team of translators who had lived in Mexico, Cuba, Argentina, Chile, and Spain reviewed the initial translations and replaced culture-specific wording with culture-neutral wording.
A second team of translators back-translated the items of the Spanish versions. If wording from the original items and back-translations were discrepant, the team of translators consulted with one another and selected wording that was mutually acceptable.
ISS The ISS is a item self-report instrument designed to assess the severity of current manic and depressive symptoms. In the original version, participants respond to each item using a mm visual analog scale. Both scales succeeded in not only distinguishing diagnostic groups, but in discriminating changes in symptom severity Bauer et al.
The HPS is one of the few measures that has been shown to predict the development of hypomania and bipolar disorder over time Kwapil et al. The items assess positive affect, energy, extraversion, and goal-driven behavior. The measure is uncorrelated with indices of social desirability Crowne-Marlow Scale for Social Desirability: High scores have been shown to predict the onset of bipolar disorder and related conditions over a year period Kwapil et al.
The IDD has been shown to differentiate between individuals with and without major depression Zimmerman et al.