Termites and intestinal flagellates relationship test

termites and intestinal flagellates relationship test

The symbiosis between termite gut flagellates and their numerous bacterial . conditions were tested by increasing formamide concentrations from 0 to 60 % in . Termites and intestinal flagellates have a mutualistic relationship. The flagellates digest the cellulose in the termites diet. This allows the. To determine the relation of the intestinal protozoa of termites to their host. means of various microchemical tests, to have shown that the wood is digested.

Termite Gut Symbiotic Archaezoa Are Becoming Living Metabolic Fossils

The new sequences were added to the pre-existing alignments Ohkuma et al. For the SSU rRNA gene sequences of Pseudotrichonympha species, only three among 16 sequences from different termite species were used in the analyses; these 16 sequences were closely related and formed a robust monophyletic group Noda et al. Gamma shape parameter and fraction of invariable sites were estimated from the data. Bootstrap values were obtained from replicates.

Bayesian analysis was performed with MrBayes v.

Termite Gut Symbiotic Archaezoa Are Becoming Living Metabolic Fossils

Three hot and one cold Markov chains were run in duplicate, each from a random starting tree for 2 generations sampled every generations with burn-in values set at generations. The alternative tree topologies were obtained by Bayesian inference under constraint of considered taxa.

HsT36; iii all the four in the genus Eucomonympha; iv all the four in the genus Eucomonympha and T. The constraints of the sets i and ii were used for evaluating the nesting of cockroach Trichonympha within termite Trichonympha. The inference under the set iv constraint resulted in the basal position of P. Although the sequence of E. The N-terminal sequences of these cellulases exhibited significant homology to cellulases of termite origin, which belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 9.

The corresponding genes were detected not in the mRNA pool of the flagellates but in the salivary glands of M.

termites and intestinal flagellates relationship test

This showed that cellulases isolated from the flagellate cells originated from the termite host. By use of a PCR-based approach, DNAs encoding cellulases belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 45 were obtained from micromanipulated nuclei of the flagellates Koruga bonita and Deltotrichonympha nana.

These results indicated that the intestinal flagellates of M. These findings give the impression that the gut Archaezoa are heading toward a secondary loss of their own endoglucanases and that they use exclusively termite cellulases. Cellulose is the major polysaccharide component of plant cell walls and the most abundant renewable energy source on earth.

termites and intestinal flagellates relationship test

In the biological conversion of cellulose to glucose, at least three distinct types of glycolytic enzymes are involved. The diverse spectra of cellulases are classified into 12 of the 57 glycosyl hydrolase families based on amino acid sequence similarities 5.

Termites are among the most important lignocellulose-digesting insects and possess a great variety of symbiotic microorganisms in their hindguts, including Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya, i. Cellulases of termite origin belong to glycosyl hydrolase family 9 GHF9. Flagellated protozoa belonging to the Archaezoa are unique symbionts in the phylogenetically lower termites. They are cellulolytic and produce acetate from cellulose for the benefit of their hosts Only three species of the flagellate flora have been obtained in culture: Trichomitopsis termopsidis 1920 and Trichomympha sphaerica 21 from a Zootermopsis sp.

The problem of pure culture restricted the identification and characterization of cellulases of protozoan origin until Ohtoko et al. The termite Mastotermes darwiniensis is the only species of the most primitive termite family, Mastotermitidae.

It harbors four large flagellate species in the hindgut: Two small flagellate species also thrive in the intestine: The flagellates themselves harbor extracellular and intracellular prokaryotes 4 None of the flagellates of M.