systems, and just-in-time (JIT) production plays a crucial role in supply chain establishing a long-term sole-supplier relationship with a supplier (Martinich. Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory is an inventory management method where the goal is to have Suppliers, drop shippers, and manufacturers need to closely collaborate with the retailer to supply What do supplier relationships look like? The Amazon effect on consumer expectations and buying decisions. production begins only when requested. It is supposed to match Keywords: Vendor–buyer; Supply chain; Integrated inventory models; JIT. 1. Introduction. Modern . delivers to the buyer n times per lot—the delivery index. Fig. 1 shows the.
Long-term contracts securing the lowest prices possible.
Just-in-Time Inventory Management | Edward Lowe Foundation
Freeing up your purchasing-and-receiving employees to work on other things. For JIT to work, you need to have reliable suppliers who provide consistent-quality products, preferably with warehouses close enough to your location to make speedy deliveries.
Cutting-edge automated equipment and high-tech inventory management systems — things as universal as bar coding — are making JIT increasingly easier to implement. A key part of JIT is the Kanban, a system of tracking supplies throughout the entire manufacturing process. It can be anything from a high-tech computerized system to a low-tech card or ticket system.
Sort of a microcosm of JIT as a whole, a well-planned Kanban helps track the speed at which each part works its way through the system. This makes it easier to keep track of inventory. There are two basic models for the Kanban, a station-based system or a container system. Workers "order" the exact number of parts they need from another station above them in the production line.
When a station receives a request, they supply the part, then make or order a replacement in turn, the stations they received parts from then order replacements for the parts they provided, and so on up the line. Workers take parts directly from a container on the floor. Inventory is tracked by knowing precisely how many parts each container holds. A replacement container is brought out shortly before the first is emptied so workers are never short of supplies.
JIT programs won't work for everyone.
Just-in-Time Inventory Management
Not only do you need fairly consistent production so you can accurately predict how rapidly you go through every part or ingredient you use, but you also need to have a good communications system in place among your employees.
To help determine if JIT is for you: Assess your production flow. Do you produce a steady or predictable amount of products each day, week, month? Can you predict how much inventory you will need in a given day, week, month?
Just in Time (JIT) Advantages and Disadvantages | Babington
If you cannot, implementing a JIT program could be difficult, if not impossible. Talk to your suppliers. Are they willing to make smaller, but more frequent, deliveries? Will they negotiate good deals, given the promise of guaranteed, long-term business from your company? Not every supplier is going to want the responsibility of being part of your JIT program, but some will accept the challenge and sign on for the long haul.
Can you rely on them to make deliveries just in time? Talk to your employees. How well do the employees communicate with one another and with you? Is each willing to take the time to learn a new system and do what it takes to have it run smoothly?
Not just with your employees and suppliers, but with yourself. Switching over to a JIT system will take a lot of commitment. Don't get involved with JIT simply because other companies have; do it if you think it will work for your company.
One of Scott Paint's local raw-materials suppliers, Gulf Coast Chemical, immediately saw an opportunity for more business — orders for two plants now coming from one location — and also a challenge. After much brainstorming, Allen and Gulf Coast personnel hit pay dirt — a just-in-time inventory-management program. Gulf Coast had participated in this sort of program with another customer, but had never initiated and created such a program itself.
Selling the program to the Bruning-Scott Paint management team depended on achieving three key tasks: Demonstrating cost savings and efficiencies with real numbers. Convincing Scott Paint to commit to an ambitious program, in the midst of a plant consolidation.
Navigating the confusion and uncertainty that accompanied the merger. The basic premise of the proposal was for Gulf Coast to assume responsibility for bringing in raw materials from various sources to the new, consolidated plant and managing those materials more effectively than Scott Paint could.
Gulf Coast would offer to consolidate purchases, make more frequent deliveries to reduce inventory and help cut production costs. Constructing a proposal that described the process and the results in clear terms was the next step.
- Just in Time (JIT) Advantages and Disadvantages
The demand for six-sigma 1 and other quality initiatives is an emerging trend. The aerospace industry, among others, will almost certainly require improvements in supply chain quality as OEMs and prime contractors work towards the goal of producing defect-free work on the first try.
It is a fundamental premise of manufacturing that high-quality end products cannot be built cost effectively from low-quality components. Most suppliers operate in a tolerance range of two to three sigma.Webinar on Supplier Relationship Management
OEMs cannot achieve six-sigma quality with three-sigma suppliers. Suppliers 1 Sigma is a statistical measure of the capability of a business or manufacturing process to perform defect-free work. The common measurement index is defects per unit. A unit can be virtually anything e. At the six-sigma level, the incidence of defects is nearly zero Velocci, Page 51 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Surviving Supply Chain Integration: Strategies for Small Manufacturers.
The National Academies Press. Supply chain integration requires that quality be more than a set of abstract standards. Quality must be a systemic way of doing business that is instilled in all participants in the chain.
Quality has become critical in supply chains using just-in-time manufacturing with low inventory levels because they have very few buffers to protect against quality failures. SMEs should not consider quality only as a requirement for continued supply chain participation, but as a strategic capability. SMEs that adopt quality as a competitive strategy are finding that they are better able to weather cyclical swings in their businesses and that their product costs are lower.
Thus, SMEs may reap benefits by exceeding the quality levels required by supply chains. Most integrated supply chains require that participants have a carefully reasoned and executed quality plan that includes concerted efforts to provide levels of quality appropriate to the market being served. Proficient problem identification and problem solving capabilities are fundamental elements of the quality plan. Although six sigma and other quality programs may be of strategic benefit, they can be expensive to implement.
Thus, SMEs must carefully target and prioritize improvements in terms of their effect on the company's operational and financial goals, as well as overall business objectives. Delivering a quality product requires, at a minimum, well established and well documented manufacturing processes and controls that meet impartial standards and customer requirements.
Six-sigma is one such standard, but other, less exacting standards may be adequate. SMEs are increasingly being required to identify, capture, analyze, and act on process data in conformance with SPC. SMEs should discuss with their supply chain partners how quality improvements can affect the overall performance of the supply chain. Together, the partners should identify and prioritize SME actions that will have the greatest impact on overall supply chain quality, cost, and cycle time and determine how these actions will translate into increased competitiveness and profitability for the SME.
Properly implemented quality procedures can reduce rework, scrap, testing, and inspection and improve on-time deliveries. The result can be substantial savings and fewer schedule variances. For example, in the development and pilot production phases of new electronic products, two new quality techniques, highly-accelerated life testing HALT and highly-accelerated stress screening HASS have yielded substantial benefits.
Although they are somewhat expensive, these techniques have been shown to be effective in debugging new products and identifying Page 52 Share Cite Suggested Citation: In many cases, these new techniques have been better able to identify problems in advance of full-scale production than previous methods, including MIL Standard tests. SPC has advanced beyond its early role as an after-the-fact application of statistics to production and inspection data, when it served primarily as a means of creating a report verifying compliance with customer requirements.
Looking for other ways to read this?
Today, SPC can provide opportunities for real-time assessment of manufacturing processes and can enable response to the causes of process variations as they happen.
Thus, processes can be adjusted before more nonconforming products are produced. The savings are immediate and quantifiable, not just in direct costs, but also in more timely shipments, improved product quality, and increased customer satisfaction, all of which reflect favorably on SMEs seeking long-term supply chain partnerships. Participants in a supply chain need a common language to facilitate accurate communication on issues of quality.
Because such languages are not universally defined and can vary from chain to chain, quality standards, such as ISO, can be helpful. SMEs may wish to adopt such standards voluntarily. SME participation in integrated supply chains can facilitate quality improvements through the exchange of ''best practices" among partners, which can enhance understanding and provide examples of proven techniques.
More advanced participants in the chain can assist those who are less advanced to adopt and use appropriate quality techniques. In response to the requirements of integrated supply chains for improved quality, small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises should adopt quality as a competitive strategy and consider implementing techniques, such as six sigma, ISO certification, and statistical process controls, to comply with customer demands, improve overall business performance, and provide a common language for communication on quality issues.
Costs have always been critical, and in the increasingly global economy it is not unusual for SMEs to find sudden gaps between their prices and the prices of competitors from low-cost areas. The convergence of 1 improvements in high-speed communications, 2 reduced transportation costs, 3 widespread adoption of Page 53 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Thus, many SMEs must substantially reduce costs to remain competitive, and they are finding that competing on the basis of cost alone is becoming a losing game.