Evan Osar: Forward Shoulder Posture and Scapular Retraction Exercises - On Target Publications
To quote the brilliant Albert Einstein: “Things should be made as simple as possible, but not While all muscles connecting to the clavicle, scapula, and humerus . disrupts the integrity of the scapulothoracic relationship because it flattens out. Scapular Dyskinesis and Its Relation to Sh0ulder Injury By a News The news reporters obtained a quote from the research by the authors, “Basic science clavicle fracture, acromioclavicular joint injury, and multidirectional instability should. The scapula is a flat, triangular bone that links the axial skeleton to the upper extremity via only muscular attachments. with young males, due to its relationship to high-energy trauma (i.e. – motor vehicle accidents). . Famous Quote.
Coracoid Process The coracoid process is a projection off of the scapula that points straight out to the front of the body. This piece of the scapula bone is important because it has muscles and ligaments attached that help hold the clavicle, the shoulder joint, and humerus. There are ligaments from the coracoid that help keep the clavicle in place; these can be torn in some AC acromioclavicular joint dislocations.
One of the heads of the biceps attaches to the coracoid. The coracoid usually does not cause pain or have injuries but can occasionally be a cause for shoulder discomfort. Glenoid cavity The glenoid is the socket portion of the ball and socket joint of the shoulder glenohumeral joint and is part of the scapula.
It is relatively flat which allows the joint to be the most mobile joint in the body.
Evan Osar: Forward Shoulder Posture and Scapular Retraction Exercises
While the joint is normally stable, lots of motion, injury or abnormality in any of the structures of the glenoid cavity can lead to joint instability. Occasionally, the shoulder can lose motion from conditions such as arthritis or adhesive capsulitis frozen shoulder. Arm Bones Humerus The humerus is the long bone between the shoulder and the elbow.
It has the ball of the ball and socket of the shoulder glenohumeral joint. At the other end, it has its portion of the elbow joint. The humerus serves as an attachment of many muscles and ligaments in the arm.
Some of the attached muscles run all the way into the hand. The humerus typically becomes a problem only when it breaks fractures. There are many types of humerus fractures and as a result, the treatments for these fractures are quite variable. Radius The radius is one of the two forearm bones and is on the thumb side of the forearm near the hand, but is always on the outside of the elbow. The position of the radius changes depending on how the hand is turned because the radius twists around the other forearm bone, the ulna.
At the elbow, the radius is part of the odd shaped joint between the humerus and the two forearm bones. The joint between the radius and humerus by itself is like a ball and socket joint, with the radius forming the socket.
The radius has many muscular attachments to move the elbow, forearm, wrist and fingers. The end of the radius leads to the wrist joint. The radius and ulna are joined by cartilage joints at the elbow and at the wrist.
They are also joined by multiple ligaments. There are many ways that people injure the radius and the forearm. Breaking this bone is common because when we fall, the hands and arms are typically used to break the fall. Ulna The ulna is one of the two forearm bones and is on the small finger side of the forearm.
Unlike the radius, this bone does not twist, so when the hand changes position, the ulna is always in the same position on the inside part of the forearm. Like the radius, the ulna has joints at the elbow and wrist.
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The joint between the ulna and humerus is a hinge type of joint. At the wrist, the ulna has a smaller surface in contact with the wrist bones and typically bears less of the force from the hand and wrist. The ulna is joined to the radius throughout the forearm with cartilage joints at the elbow and wrist and multiple ligaments connecting to the radius through the whole length of the forearm. Like the radius, breaking the ulna bone is a common reason for problems with the ulna.
Wrist Bones Scaphoid The scaphoid is a bone in the wrist. It is part of the first row of wrist bones, but it helps to link the two rows of wrist bones together. Most of the scaphoid is covered with cartilage which contacts five other bones in the wrist and forearm. The part of the scaphoid without cartilage is attached to ligaments and has blood vessels that come from the radial artery.
Bones need blood flow to heal. A broken or fractured scaphoid can have difficulty healing, or may never heal, because of a disruption of blood flow through the scaphoid.
An intact scaphoid is important and necessary for proper wrist function because of how it interacts with the other wrist bones. Lunate The lunate is a bone in the middle of the wrist in the first row of wrist bones. Like most of the wrist bones, it is almost entirely covered in cartilage.
This bone has a crescent shape when seen from the side and its large cartilage surface allows for significant wrist motion.
It is uncommon to break the lunate, but the lunate can be involved with dislocations of the wrist and can rub against the ulna if the ulna is too long compared to the radius bone.
Triquetrum The triquetrum is a bone on the small finger side of the wrist in the first row of wrist bones. This bone adds stability to the wrist, gives the wrist a larger surface to bear weight transmitted from the hand, and makes a joint with other carpal bones including the pisiform. Trapezoid This is a roughly trapezoidal-shaped bone in the second row of wrist bones and primarily holds the index finger metacarpal bone in place. This bone is uncommonly injured. Trapezium The trapezium is a saddle-shaped bone in the second row of wrist bones, and it is the main place where the thumb metacarpal connects to the wrist.
This bone has an odd shape that allows the thumb to move in multiple directions, yet it stabilizes thumb as well. There are two main problems seen with this wrist bone. Breaking fracturing the bone is common, but the most common problem is arthritis between the trapezium and the bones it sits next to in the wrist and thumb. Capitate The capitate is a large bone in the center of the second row of wrist bones.
It forms joints with multiple bones in the wrist and hand. It sits primarily under the middle finger metacarpal bone. This bone makes an important contribution to wrist motion.
Hamate The hamate is a large, unusually shaped, bone that has an almost triangular shape when seen from the top and is located in the second row of wrist bones. As with the other wrist bones. It is one of the attachment points for the ligament involved in carpal tunnel syndrome. It holds up the ring and little finger metacarpal bones.
The hamate can be injured in more than one way. Frequently, the hamate can break when people use the hand for punching. Also, the hook of the hamate can fracture during a fall or if struck directly, such as when a baseball player swings a bat or golfer swings a golf club. Pisiform The pisiform is a small sesamoid bone a bone within a tendon that sits in the wrist and is in the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon. Hemodynamic instability with associated injuries to the pulmonary and great vessels or the brachiocephalic or subclavian may be seen.
Brachial plexus injuries may be discovered on neurologic assessment, particularly suprascapular nerve deficits, such as loss of initial arm abduction via supraspinatus or loss of external rotation via infraspinatus.
Objective evidence A scapula fracture may first be discovered during an essential part of any trauma evaluation: The axillary view is used to differentiate acromial and glenoid fractures. A degree cephalic tilt Stryker notch radiograph is useful to identify coracoids fractures. Systematic review of the scapula includes the following: Ideally, the view should be purely tangential to the glenoid; Figure 4. Axillary view of the right shoulder showing fracture at the base of the acromion.
Scapular y-view shows frature of the body of the scapula. CT scanning is particulary helpful in evaluation of intra-articular glenoid fractures.Scapula and Clavicle - Shoulder Girdle - Anatomy Tutorial
Proper use of safety belts and obeying traffic laws are paramount to avoiding these situations. Treatment options Most extra-articular scapula fractures are responsive to non-operative treatment, such as sling use and early movement of shoulder through its range of motion.
Scapular body fractures are generally responsive to non-operative treatment, unless when neurovascular compromise is present.
Clavicle in a sentence (esp. good sentence like quote, proverb)
Glenoid neck fractures can generally be treated with early range of motion exercises. Surgical indications are somewhat controversial and often depend on independent clinician judgment and the location of the fracture.
Presentations often requiring surgery include: The associated injuries account for the majority of the morbidity and mortality. An increased mortality is associated with simultaneous 1st rib fracture. Fractures treated with non-operative treatment generally unite, but the risk of a malunion is present. This is generally well tolerated, but may result in scapulothoracic crepitus and localized pain Miscellany A favorite "pimp" question on orthopedic rounds is the number of muscles that attach to the scapula.
The 18 muscles that attach to the scapula are summarized in Table 1.