Constitution of Cuba - Wikipedia
dictator, the United States implemented economic sanctions against Cuba. As Cuba Fidel Castro was a young lawyer, recently graduated from the University of. Havana faith or the establishment of religious organizations in opposition. Cuban government has strategically increased religious liberty for political gain. . University enabled me to conduct original field research in Havana in Here are five facts you should know about the country that has been shrouded in The U.S. began imposing sanctions against Cuba after Fidel Castro seized Diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba broke off in as Cuba's constitution claims to allow religious freedom, but it's.
National security adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski saw an opportunity to export a composite ideology of nationalism and Islam to the Muslim majority Central Asian republics with a view to destroying the Soviet system. Worse still, because they were the most virulently anti-communist, American support gravitated toward right-wing, more radical forms of Islam, the consequences of which have far outlived the Cold War.
In the late s the anti-fascist left had combined with Protestant neo-orthodoxy to emphasize the shared heritage of Christianity and Judaism to counter anti-Semitism and fascism. With the advent of the Cold War, Judeo-Christianity moved from being an anti-fascist to an anti-communist construct.
It helped strengthen anti-communism in America when it was waning elsewhere and was further confirmation of how far the nation had moved from its prewar Protestant-centrism.
The new emphasis on Judeo-Christianity meant one particular historical event, the creation of Israel, had portentous significance, becoming another contributory factor helping evangelicals to renegotiate and redefine their place in American political culture. The assumption that the churches would be natural allies against communism did not take into account the general tendency within Christianity since the 19th century to respond to the socioeconomic, cultural, political, and ideological challenges of modernity.
It was a tendency given added urgency by the Second World War coming after the mass industrial slaughter of the Great War, followed by chronic economic depression and political instability. Mainstream church leaders paid serious attention to achieving a more just, equitable, and stable world, one in which secular power was disciplined by moral authority.
Initially, they welcomed the access to the corridors of power facilitated by a shared religion-state anti-communism. However, Christian anti-communism proved very different from the secular variety. Hence clerical status proved no defense against charges of communism. Indeed, the religious had to be policed to ensure they did not deviate from the Cold War consensus, built as it was on a religious foundation. The Cold War consensus that Soviet Communism constituted a clear and present danger of subversion at home and military aggression from abroad helped justify the massive enlargement of the control and surveillance functions of the state.
Notably, evangelical fundamentalism was a critical factor defining the social context of civil rights activism and discourse; it was also a source of tension. The Cold War heightened divisions within African-American faith communities, with conservative evangelicals loyal to U.
Exchanges in the s between liberation theologians from Latin America and their black counterparts from the United States highlighted the impact of the religious cold war on the African-American community. As Sylvester Johnson incisively observed: They also raised questions within the mainstream churches about their relationship with the state and about confronting oppression, poverty, and injustice when it derived from the policies of their own government.
As Heather Warren has cogently observed: Progressive church leaders were targeted over foreign policy issues, especially U. With an agenda of discrediting and defunding their targets, the conservative religious think tanks were themselves funded primarily from non-church sources, including major military contractors and well-known conservative foundations. The attacks on liberal mainstream churches in the last two decades of the Cold War highlighted the extent to which Cold War Christian conservatives made little distinction between liberalism and communism, with all that implied.
The identification of Roman Catholics with anti-communism once the Cold War began ensured their group loyalty and patriotism was largely unquestioned. In the course of the s, however, inequality, racism, war, and poverty, indeed a complex range of social and global ills, meant new priorities and a more nuanced approach to communism from the American Catholic hierarchy that reflected significant changes taking place in the Vatican.Interfaith Relationships: The Path to Truth - Ghazala Hayat - TEDxSaintLouisUniversity
Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, the pope not only repudiated the concept of a just war in a world armed with nuclear weapons, he drew a notable distinction between unchristian Marxist philosophy and the positive practices to which it could give rise. Bishops who expressed socio-economic concerns about Latin American affairs found themselves under attack, with the National Conference of Catholic Bishops taken to task by the National Review and accused of sounding like Fidel Castro.
Those who adopted the tactics of civil disobedience faced the full brunt of the law, including imprisonment. Examples included the Berrigan brothers, priests Phil and Dan, who along with other Catholics became fugitives to maximize the political symbolism of their cause, resulting in a massive FBI operation and the eventual imprisonment of both priests. It also strengthened the fundamentalist tradition, more rigidly anti-communist than the evangelical and critical of the strategy of civil disobedience and the admixture of religion.
There were and are considerable disparities between different groupings of evangelicals. Article 2 of the Constitution of Iraq: Article 2 of the Constitution of Jordan: Article 2 of the Constitution of Kuwait: Article 1 of the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration: Article 10 of the Maldives's Constitution of Islam shall be the one of the basis of all the laws of the Maldives.
Article 3 of the Constitution of Malaysia: Article 5 of the Constitution of Mauritania: Article 3 of the Constitution of Morocco: Article 2 of the Constitution of Oman: Article 2 of the Constitution of Pakistan: Article 4 of the Basic Law of the State of Palestine: Respect and sanctity of all other heavenly religions shall be maintained. Article 1 of the Constitution of Qatar: Its religion is Islam and Shari'a law shall be a main source of its legislations. Article 1 of the Basic Law of Saudi Arabia: Its religion is Islam.
Article 1 and 6 of the Tunisian Constitution of The state is the guardian of religion. It guarantees freedom of conscience and belief, the free exercise of religious practices and the neutrality of mosques and places of worship from all partisan instrumentalisation.
Article 7 of the Constitution of the United Arab Emirates: Article 2 of the Constitution of Yemen: Jewish state Israel is defined in several of its laws as a " Jewish and democratic state " medina yehudit ve-demokratit. However, the term " Jewish " is a polyseme that can describe the Jewish people as either an ethnic or a religious group.
- Constitution of Cuba
- The Cold War and American Religion
- 5 facts about Cuba
The debate about the meaning of the term "Jewish" and its legal and social applications is one of the most profound issues with which Israeli society deals. The problem of the status of religion in Israel, even though it is relevant to all religions, usually refers to the status of Judaism in Israeli society. The government also reportedly has surveillance cameras at mosques, and donations to mosques by individuals are banned.
And a few other countries fall at the other end of the spectrum, making their official religion mandatory for all citizens. Much more frequently, however, states with official religions do not make the religion mandatory, but do give it more benefits than other religions, and those states typically regulate other religious groups in the country.
In Jordan, for example, Islam is the state religion, and converts from Islam to Christianity were occasionally questioned and scrutinized by security forces in Non-Muslim religious groups must register to be able to own land and administer rites such as marriage.
State religion - Wikipedia
They are tax exempt, but do not receive subsidies. In contrast, the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs manages Islamic institutions, subsidizes certain mosque-sponsored activities, pays mosque staff salaries and manages clergy training centers. In these countries, adherence to the official religion is not mandatory, but other religions are not given the same benefits and their activities are sometimes heavily restricted by the government.
Public religious expression, persuasion or conversion by these groups is punishable by death.
Many Countries Favor Specific Religions, Officially or Unofficially
Other religions in the country, however, may be given similar benefits. Among the 43 countries with official state religions, only three — all in Europe — meet these criteria: Liechtenstein, Malta and Monaco.
Monaco, for example, designates Roman Catholicism as the state religion in its constitution: And while Catholic rituals play a part in some state ceremonies, the law also designates that no one may be compelled to participate in the rites or ceremonies of any religion or to observe its days of rest. Comoros, Maldives, Mauritania and Saudi Arabia. While non-Muslims are allowed to worship in private, the government does not always respect this right and has raided such meetings of non-Muslims and detained or deported participants.
And only one country with an official religion — Tuvalu — provides no significant funding or resources for religious education programs or religious schools. In many cases, governments also provide funding or resources for religious property, including for the maintenance, upkeep or repair of religious buildings or land.
In Bahrain, for example, Islam is the official religion, and the government funds all licensed mosques. For example, in Norway, the Church of Norway was the official state religion and the government provided the salaries, benefits and pension plans of all church employees in But when it comes to one of the most common kinds of benefits — states providing funding or resources to religious groups — there are wide variations in what governments provide and how they provide it.
From tothe number of students in the imam hatip schools rose from 63, to about 1 million, and some secular parents have voiced concern that this amounts to heavy-handed government support of religion through education. In Burma Myanmarfor example, Buddhism is the unofficial, favored religion, and non-Buddhist religious groups reported difficulty repairing religious buildings and building new facilities. Guatemala is one of these countries; the government provides tax exemptions for properties of all registered religious groups, while Catholicism is favored by the government in other ways.
In Liberia, for instance, the government has provided tax exemptions and duty-free privileges to registered organizations, including missionary programs, religious charities and religious groups. This benefit was offered to all registered groups, and was not limited to Christians, the favored religion in Liberia. For example, people in countries with official or preferred religions are more likely to support government promotion of religious values and beliefs, as well as government funding of the dominant church; they also tend to believe religion is important to their sense of national belonging.
Another survey question asked Central and Eastern Europeans about their attitudes toward government funding of churches. But two countries stand out: Still, for many Central and Eastern Europeans — including Greeks and Poles — religion plays an important role in their sense of national belonging. Members of the official or preferred faith also are much more likely than members of other religions to think the dominant faith is an important element in national belonging.
There is no clear difference, for example, on views about democracy. Government restrictions higher in countries with official or preferred religions In some ways, states that have an official or preferred religion tend to behave differently from states that do not.
Not only are they more likely to provide financial or legal benefits to a single religion, but they also are more likely to place a high level of government restrictions on other religious groups. These restrictions are analyzed using the Government Restrictions Index GRIa point scale measuring government laws, practices and actions that restrict religious beliefs and practices, with a score of 10 indicating the highest level of restrictions.
One of the ways states with official or preferred religions restrict religion is through formally banning certain religious groups.