Science and Technology Physics Astrophysics Atomic Electrostatics Faraday's Law Inductance LCR Phase Relationships Magnetic. Technology instruction in science should take advantage of the unique features of models of these relationships are found in virtually all areas of physics. Physics is the most fundamental and all-inclusive of the sciences, and has had a profound effect on all scientific development. In fact, physics is the present-day.
Another study found that the use of videotapes to introduce physics laboratory experiments had positive effects on student attitudes, but no effect on student achievement Lewis, This study, however, was conducted before recent innovations in video analysis have made possible easier and more detailed analysis processes.
Once the video is marked, students have capabilities of viewing the video in real-time and watching the graphs respond in real-time to the motion of the object, leading to many of the same benefits that real-time MBL analyses provide. The further benefit of being able to analyze situations in ways that would not otherwise be possible also makes this technology an essential addition to any physics learning environment.
Computer Simulations Requiring Graphics Figure 6.
Air Track computer simulation. These simulations may include various levels of interactivity, but most often involve dynamic motion that models the real event. An example of a computer simulation that can be used by students to quickly manipulate variables and gather data with greater detail and ease than would be possible using only physical equipment is the Web-based air track simulation accessed through the mechanics link at http: Initial conditions such as mass, velocity, and degree of elasticity may be specified.
After the collision, final velocities and momenta are displayed. Like all computer simulations, this simulated air track has limitations. The masses of the colliding objects may be specified only in the range of 0. The display of momenta values is a useful feature of this simulation, but there is no similar display of kinetic energies, making it difficult for students to readily examine changes in kinetic energies as the elasticity of the collision is manipulated.
These simple Java applets may be downloaded and used for nonprofit educational purposes without requesting permission from Davidson College. The use of computer simulations has the potential for enormous benefits to student understanding of physics concepts. Despite this potential, research into its instructional effectiveness has yielded inconsistent results. It is likely that the increased sophistication and realism of simulations available today may lead to different results if similarly conducted studies were performed again.
The ineffectiveness of a computer simulation may not be the result of a poorly designed simulation. Used as such, a computer simulation shows no more promise for facilitating conceptual understanding than any other teacher directed activity. As with any tool, its proper use in the right situations for the right purposes determines its value. It is important when using a simulation that the instructor helps students realize and critically evaluate the assumptions upon which the simulation program is written.
Some students may actually believe that positive and negative signs actually exist in atoms and move around in an object. Students are not always aware that simulations may be programmed to do anything imaginable, even if it is not phenomenally accurate.
Programs such as the widely used Microsoft Word make it easy for data and information obtained from other sources to be pasted into a research document.
In studying student perceptions of slideshow presentations in large group instruction, Cassady determined that computer-aided presentations were superior to traditional lecture instruction in the following areas: The organizational qualities and ability to seamlessly integrate other forms of instructional methods e.
Spreadsheets are currently used in physics instruction in a number of ways. The most common use is for simple display of data in graphical form. A sampling of other more sophisticated uses of spreadsheets include programming for simulations in electrical circuit analysis Kellogg, ; Silva,planetary orbits Bridges,double slit interference Field,and the Compton effect Kinderman, The World Wide Web is also an abundant source of information when investigating physics concepts.
Many Web sites now contain physics tutorials with varying degrees of interactivity. These tutorials often include both text and simulations and may even include diagnostic self-assessment tools.
Additionally, the effectiveness of computer technology depends not only on the way in which the computer and software are used, but also on the interactions of the students as they use the technology Otero et al.
Regardless of the type of technology used, the process of learning in the classroom can become significantly richer as students have access to new and different types of information, can manipulate it on the computer through graphic displays or controlled experiments in ways never before possible, and can communicate their results and conclusions in a variety of media to their teacher, students in the next classroom, or students around the world.
Using this model, developers of effective learning environments must take into consideration the unique characteristics of the individual learners and the processes through which they learn best, must conduct formative assessments, and must establish support for a community of learners. The research related to student achievement in technology-rich environments serves as support for each of these effective learning environment characteristics.
Effectiveness of technology implementation is, therefore, dependent upon the same features that make any instructional practice effective.
The impact of video motion analysis on kinematics graph interpretation skills.
AAPT Announcer, 26, Computing in Science and Engineering, 5 1 Constructing a typology of models for science education. Brain, mind, experience, and school. Which comes first, the simulation or the lecture? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 7 4 The effect of real-time laboratory graphing on learning graphic representations of distance and velocity.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 24 4 Fitting planetary orbits with a spreadsheet. Physics Education, 30 5 The influence of interactive videodisc instruction using real-time analysis on kinematics graphing skills of high school physics students.
Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32 8 Retrieved March 20,from http: Real-world explorations for secondary mathematics. Learning and Leading with Technology, 32 6 Student and instructor perceptions of the efficacy of computer-aided lecutres in undergraduate university courses.
Journal of Educational Computing Research, 19 2 Some current research on effectiveness of educational simulation: Implications for alternative strategies.
The American Behavioral Scientist, 10, Epistemologically authentic inquiry in schools: A theoretical framework for evaluating inquiry tasks. Science Education, 86, The Introductory Physics Project What has it accomplished? American Journal of Physics, 66, Physics Education, 38 5 The Physics Teacher, 40 8 An investigation on the effects of using interactive digital video in a physics classroom on student learning and attitudes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34 5 Physics Education, 30 4 When learning about the real world is better done virtually: A study of substituting computer simulations for laboratory equipment.
Guidelines for science educators. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 1 1 Promoting appropriate uses of technology in mathematics teacher preparation. Positioning models in science education and in design and technology education.
Constructing physics understanding in a computer-supported environment. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, Using computer software in the teaching of mechanics. Use of the computer for research on student thinking in physics. American Journal of Physics, 64, Hands-on and computer simulations. The Physics Teacher, 33, Diagnosis and remediation of an alternate conception of velocity using a microcomputer program.
American Journal of Physics, 53, Science Teacher, 60 8 We emphasize that the enzymes themselves are not involved in the reaction directly. They do not change; they merely let an atom go from one place to another. Having done so, the enzyme is ready to do it to the next molecule, like a machine in a factory. Of course, there must be a supply of certain atoms and a way of disposing of other atoms.
Take hydrogen, for example: For example, there are three or four hydrogen-reducing enzymes which are used all over our cycle in different places. It is interesting that the machinery which liberates some hydrogen at one place will take that hydrogen and use it somewhere else.
The most important feature of the cycle of Fig. So, GTP has more energy than GDP and if the cycle is going one way, we are producing molecules which have extra energy and which can go drive some other cycle which requires energy, for example the contraction of muscle. The muscle will not contract unless there is GTP. An enzyme, you see, does not care in which direction the reaction goes, for if it did it would violate one of the laws of physics.
Physics is of great importance in biology and other sciences for still another reason, that has to do with experimental techniques. In fact, if it were not for the great development of experimental physics, these biochemistry charts would not be known today.
The reason is that the most useful tool of all for analyzing this fantastically complex system is to label the atoms which are used in the reactions. They are different isotopes. We recall that the chemical properties of atoms are determined by the number of electrons, not by the mass of the nucleus. But there can be, for example in carbon, six neutrons or seven neutrons, together with the six protons which all carbon nuclei have.
Now, we return to the description of enzymes and proteins. Not all proteins are enzymes, but all enzymes are proteins. There are many proteins, such as the proteins in muscle, the structural proteins which are, for example, in cartilage and hair, skin, etc. However, proteins are a very characteristic substance of life: Proteins have a very interesting and simple structure.
They are a series, or chain, of different amino acids. There are twenty different amino acids, and they all can combine with each other to form chains in which the backbone is CO-NH, etc. Proteins are nothing but chains of various ones of these twenty amino acids.
Each of the amino acids probably serves some special purpose. Some, for example, have a sulfur atom at a certain place; when two sulfur atoms are in the same protein, they form a bond, that is, they tie the chain together at two points and form a loop.
Another has extra oxygen atoms which make it an acidic substance, another has a basic characteristic. Some of them have big groups hanging out to one side, so that they take up a lot of space. One of the amino acids, called proline, is not really an amino acid, but imino acid. There is a slight difference, with the result that when proline is in the chain, there is a kink in the chain. If we wished to manufacture a particular protein, we would give these instructions: In this way, we will get a complicated-looking chain, hooked together and having some complex structure; this is presumably just the manner in which all the various enzymes are made.
One of the great triumphs in recent times sincewas at last to discover the exact spatial atomic arrangement of certain proteins, which involve some fifty-six or sixty amino acids in a row.
The Feynman Lectures on Physics Vol. I Ch. 3: The Relation of Physics to Other Sciences
Over a thousand atoms more nearly two thousand, if we count the hydrogen atoms have been located in a complex pattern in two proteins. The first was hemoglobin. One of the sad aspects of this discovery is that we cannot see anything from the pattern; we do not understand why it works the way it does. Of course, that is the next problem to be attacked. Another problem is how do the enzymes know what to be? A red-eyed fly makes a red-eyed fly baby, and so the information for the whole pattern of enzymes to make red pigment must be passed from one fly to the next.
This is done by a substance in the nucleus of the cell, not a protein, called DNA short for desoxyribose nucleic acid.
This is the key substance which is passed from one cell to another for instance sperm cells consist mostly of DNA and carries the information as to how to make the enzymes. First, the blueprint must be able to reproduce itself.
Secondly, it must be able to instruct the protein. Concerning the reproduction, we might think that this proceeds like cell reproduction. Cells simply grow bigger and then divide in half. Must it be thus with DNA molecules, then, that they too grow bigger and divide in half? Every atom certainly does not grow bigger and divide in half! No, it is impossible to reproduce a molecule except by some more clever way. Schematic diagram of DNA. The structure of the substance DNA was studied for a long time, first chemically to find the composition, and then with x-rays to find the pattern in space.
The result was the following remarkable discovery: The DNA molecule is a pair of chains, twisted upon each other. The backbone of each of these chains, which are analogous to the chains of proteins but chemically quite different, is a series of sugar and phosphate groups, as shown in Fig. Thus perhaps, in some way, the specific instructions for the manufacture of proteins are contained in the specific series of the DNA.
Attached to each sugar along the line, and linking the two chains together, are certain pairs of cross-links. Whatever the letters may be in one chain, each one must have its specific complementary letter on the other chain. What then about reproduction? Suppose we split this chain in two.
How can we make another one just like it? This is the central unsolved problem in biology today. The first clues, or pieces of information, however, are these: There are in the cell tiny particles called ribosomes, and it is now known that that is the place where proteins are made. But the ribosomes are not in the nucleus, where the DNA and its instructions are. Something seems to be the matter.
However, it is also known that little molecule pieces come off the DNA—not as long as the big DNA molecule that carries all the information itself, but like a small section of it. This is called RNA, but that is not essential. It is a kind of copy of the DNA, a short copy. The RNA, which somehow carries a message as to what kind of protein to make goes over to the ribosome; that is known.
When it gets there, protein is synthesized at the ribosome. That is also known. However, the details of how the amino acids come in and are arranged in accordance with a code that is on the RNA are, as yet, still unknown. We do not know how to read it. Certainly no subject or field is making more progress on so many fronts at the present moment, than biology, and if we were to name the most powerful assumption of all, which leads one on and on in an attempt to understand life, it is that all things are made of atoms, and that everything that living things do can be understood in terms of the jigglings and wigglings of atoms.
Astronomy is older than physics. In fact, it got physics started by showing the beautiful simplicity of the motion of the stars and planets, the understanding of which was the beginning of physics. But the most remarkable discovery in all of astronomy is that the stars are made of atoms of the same kind as those on the earth. Atoms liberate light which has definite frequencies, something like the timbre of a musical instrument, which has definite pitches or frequencies of sound.
When we are listening to several different tones we can tell them apart, but when we look with our eyes at a mixture of colors we cannot tell the parts from which it was made, because the eye is nowhere near as discerning as the ear in this connection. However, with a spectroscope we can analyze the frequencies of the light waves and in this way we can see the very tunes of the atoms that are in the different stars. As a matter of fact, two of the chemical elements were discovered on a star before they were discovered on the earth.
Helium was discovered on the sun, whence its name, and technetium was discovered in certain cool stars. This, of course, permits us to make headway in understanding the stars, because they are made of the same kinds of atoms which are on the earth.
Now we know a great deal about the atoms, especially concerning their behavior under conditions of high temperature but not very great density, so that we can analyze by statistical mechanics the behavior of the stellar substance. Even though we cannot reproduce the conditions on the earth, using the basic physical laws we often can tell precisely, or very closely, what will happen.
So it is that physics aids astronomy. Strange as it may seem, we understand the distribution of matter in the interior of the sun far better than we understand the interior of the earth. What goes on inside a star is better understood than one might guess from the difficulty of having to look at a little dot of light through a telescope, because we can calculate what the atoms in the stars should do in most circumstances. One of the most impressive discoveries was the origin of the energy of the stars, that makes them continue to burn.
One of the men who discovered this was out with his girlfriend the night after he realized that nuclear reactions must be going on in the stars in order to make them shine. She was not impressed with being out with the only man who, at that moment, knew why stars shine. Well, it is sad to be alone, but that is the way it is in this world. Furthermore, ultimately, the manufacture of various chemical elements proceeds in the centers of the stars, from hydrogen.
How do we know? Because there is a clue. The proportions are purely the result of nuclear reactions. By looking at the proportions of the isotopes in the cold, dead ember which we are, we can discover what the furnace was like in which the stuff of which we are made was formed. Astronomy is so close to physics that we shall study many astronomical things as we go along. First, meteorology and the weather.
Of course the instruments of meteorology are physical instruments, and the development of experimental physics made these instruments possible, as was explained before.
- Technology for Physics Instruction
However, the theory of meteorology has never been satisfactorily worked out by the physicist. It turns out to be very sensitive, and even unstable.
If you have ever seen water run smoothly over a dam, and then turn into a large number of blobs and drops as it falls, you will understand what I mean by unstable.
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You know the condition of the water before it goes over the spillway; it is perfectly smooth; but the moment it begins to fall, where do the drops begin? What determines how big the lumps are going to be and where they will be?
That is not known, because the water is unstable. Even a smooth moving mass of air, in going over a mountain turns into complex whirlpools and eddies. In many fields we find this situation of turbulent flow that we cannot analyze today. Quickly we leave the subject of weather, and discuss geology!
The question basic to geology is, what makes the earth the way it is? The most obvious processes are in front of your very eyes, the erosion processes of the rivers, the winds, etc. It is easy enough to understand these, but for every bit of erosion there is an equal amount of something else going on. Mountains are no lower today, on the average, than they were in the past.
There must be mountain-forming processes. You will find, if you study geology, that there are mountain-forming processes and volcanism, which nobody understands but which is half of geology.
The phenomenon of volcanoes is really not understood. What makes an earthquake is, ultimately, not understood. It is understood that if something is pushing something else, it snaps and will slide—that is all right. But what pushes, and why? The theory is that there are currents inside the earth—circulating currents, due to the difference in temperature inside and outside—which, in their motion, push the surface slightly. Thus if there are two opposite circulations next to each other, the matter will collect in the region where they meet and make belts of mountains which are in unhappy stressed conditions, and so produce volcanoes and earthquakes.
What about the inside of the earth? A great deal is known about the speed of earthquake waves through the earth and the density of distribution of the earth. However, physicists have been unable to get a good theory as to how dense a substance should be at the pressures that would be expected at the center of the earth. In other words, we cannot figure out the properties of matter very well in these circumstances. We do much less well with the earth than we do with the conditions of matter in the stars.
Technology for Physics Instruction – CITE Journal
The mathematics involved seems a little too difficult, so far, but perhaps it will not be too long before someone realizes that it is an important problem, and really works it out. The other aspect, of course, is that even if we did know the density, we cannot figure out the circulating currents. Nor can we really work out the properties of rocks at high pressure. Incidentally, psychoanalysis is not a science: The witch doctor has a theory that a disease like malaria is caused by a spirit which comes into the air; it is not cured by shaking a snake over it, but quinine does help malaria.
So, if you are sick, I would advise that you go to the witch doctor because he is the man in the tribe who knows the most about the disease; on the other hand, his knowledge is not science. Psychoanalysis has not been checked carefully by experiment, and there is no way to find a list of the number of cases in which it works, the number of cases in which it does not work, etc. The other branches of psychology, which involve things like the physiology of sensation—what happens in the eye, and what happens in the brain—are, if you wish, less interesting.
But some small but real progress has been made in studying them. One of the most interesting technical problems may or may not be called psychology. The central problem of the mind, if you will, or the nervous system, is this: In what way is it different? We do not know where to look, or what to look for, when something is memorized.
We do not know what it means, or what change there is in the nervous system, when a fact is learned.