Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of . human behavior like active versus passive transport mode choices. Relationships between human activity and the environment fertile soil, etc. are aspects of the physical environment that enable people to live and thrive. physical geography equals to the evolutive process of the relationship between relations. Human come from the geography environment. In order to exist and.
Fish are a renewable resource. However, if fishing is not managed properly and more fish are taken from the water than can be replaced naturally, the fishery will fail. Overfishing and other examples of over-exploitation of natural resources can result in damage to or the loss of entire ecosystems. An ecosystem includes all the living organisms humans, plants, animals, micro-organisms and their physical environment soil, water, air, land and the interactions between them.
If one component of the system is removed, this can have knock-on effects on the other parts of the system. In Ethiopia, clearing land for agriculture to meet the food needs of the growing population and the demand for fuel and construction materials has resulted in a steady loss of forest area, which is still continuing as you can see from Figure 1. MoFED, a The loss of forest has several undesirable consequences. Forests are home to many different types of trees, as well as other plants, and a wide range of animals from insects to birds and mammals.
The conversion of forests to agriculture greatly reduces biodiversity, which is a measure of the variety of living organisms all life forms. Biodiversity is important for humans because we use other living organisms to provide several essentials: Deforestation is a significant contributory cause of soil erosion.
Once the trees and undergrowth are removed, the underlying ground is exposed. Without the intercepting effect of the vegetation and the tree roots binding the soil together, the soil is more likely to be washed away when it rains. Loss of forests also has a significant impact on water supply. Tree roots reach deep into the soil and create spaces between the particles which increases soil permeability, allowing rainwater to soak in and replenish groundwater.
Some influences of the physical environment on human cognition.
Permeability means the ease with which water moves through soil or rock. Fossil fuels have been the main energy source for global industrialisation, but because they are non-renewable, the quantity is ultimately limited and their use is not sustainable over the long term.
Furthermore, burning of fossil fuels is the main cause of climate change.
Climate change is discussed fully in later study sessions. There are several renewable alternatives to fossil fuels. Wood used as a fuel is renewable in the sense that trees will regrow but there are other disadvantages such as deforestation, as you have read. In Ethiopia, windfarms are harnessing wind power to generate electricity Figure 1. Ethiopia already has several hydropower stations and more are planned, including the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam, currently under construction.
Hydroelectric power is renewable because it makes use of the energy of flowing water but does not use up the water in the process. The direct use of water by people falls into three main categories: The relative proportions of these three categories vary in different parts of the world, but globally the sector using the most water is agriculture FAO, Figure 1.
Adapted from FAO, As well as direct use of water for human activities, water is also essential for the environment and to maintain biodiversity. Rivers, lakes and wetlands are important habitats for wildlife and need a minimum amount of water at all times. This becomes a problem when the demand for water for human activities exceeds the supply. Water is not an endlessly renewable resource.
Study Session 1 Human Interactions with the Environment: View as single page
In many parts of the world water demand is significantly above sustainable water supply. Many countries are already experiencing water stress or scarcity. These terms refer to the volume of water available relative to the use and demand for it, which is linked to the population served. Countries which have less than m3 of water per person per year for all purposes are defined as water stressed United Nations, Water scarce countries have been defined as those with less than m3 of water per person per year.
These precise figures should be used with caution, however, because they do not recognise variations between countries and they hide the underlying causes of water scarcity. View larger image Figure 1. WWAP, Increasing water demand leads to unsustainable use of water resources. By the actions of the water cycle which you will learn about in Study Session 4 water supply is replenished, but taking excessive amounts of water from rivers and groundwater for domestic, industrial and agricultural use decreases the amount of water available for current and future generations.
Globally, water withdrawals have tripled over the last 50 years due to population growth and to increased consumption per person. Many areas with plentiful supplies can sustain this use, but in some countries the future may bring water shortages unless demand is managed.
If the trend for increased consumption continues, what could be the result for Ethiopia? As you can see from Figure 1. In practice, for Ethiopia, the problem of water supply is not so much about the volume of water that is available.
The problem is the infrastructure and investment required in delivering adequate quantities of safe water to all the people wherever they live. The availability of water and access to a safe supply varies considerably throughout the country and between rural and urban populations. However, by the amount of water in the lake had dropped dramatically Figure 1.
The use of domestic water and also water for irrigation especially for growing khat has increased significantly. Deforestation of the surrounding area, as land is cleared for farming and to meet an increasing need for wood, means that tree roots no longer hold the soil together and it is washed off the hillsides into the lake.
This causes it to silt up and reduces the capacity of the lake. Warming of the local climate may also have had an effect, increasing the rate of evaporation from the lake.
Recently, lack of water in the lake has interrupted water supply to Harar, a nearby town of overpeople. What are the possible causes of the loss of water from Lake Alemaya? Increased use of water for domestic uses and for irrigation, deforestation leading to soil erosion and silt deposition in the lake, and possibly climate change.
For the WASH sector, the most important of these is our own bodily wastes. The impacts of open defecation and inadequate sanitation on human health and on the wider environment are profound. Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogens disease-causing agents in water and food that have been contaminated by the wastes from infected people. Preventing this connection between human wastes and the intake of contaminated water is the primary goal of WASH services.
Industry, agriculture and energy production all generate wastes that can pollute air, water and soil. Pollution means the introduction into the environment of substances liable to cause harm to humans and other living organisms.
For example, the leather industry produces large amounts of liquid wastes from the tanning process. These wastes contain organic materials such as fat from the hides and toxic poisonous chemicals including some human carcinogens cancer-causing agents. Another example is the release of so-called greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, which contribute to human-induced climate change.
Pollutants and pollution are the topics of Study Sessions 7 and 8 and climate change is described in more detail in Study Session 9. The green arrow indicates the waste generated as a product of this interaction.
The red arrows indicate thenegative effect on both the environment and humans if the waste is not properly managed. For instance, gadgets such as mobile phones, computers, televisions, microwave ovens and refrigerators have improved living standards for those people who can afford them. Technology can also improve the quality of our environment.
To promote physical activity PA in the adult population, research investigating its possible underlying determinants and correlates is essential. While earlier research on this topic focused mainly on the contribution of personal determinants of PA behavior, social ecological models have been of growing interest during the last decade.
Study Session 1 Human Interactions with the Environment
These models put forward that domain-specific PA is influenced by multiple factors, which interact across different levels [ 5 - 7 ]. Of particular interest is the environmental level, including the physical environment. Davison and Lawson defined the physical environment as the objective and perceived characteristics of the physical context in which people spend their time e. As physical environmental attributes are changeable and such changes can influence health-related behaviors such as PA, insight into physical environmental correlates of PA is crucial when developing interventions to promote PA.
At present, several reviews have summarized the available evidence on the relationship between the physical environment and different PA domains in adult populations [ 9 - 16 ]. Remarkably, the majority of discussed studies in these reviews were carried out in North American and Australian settings, while the proportion of studies conducted in other continents like Europe are more limited.
Moreover, none of these reviews provided separate results for different geographical regions. Currently, it is not clear yet whether the results on environmental correlates of PA found in America or Australia are applicable to European countries, so further research is needed before transferring findings across continents. Since research on environmental correlates of food-intake shows that associations may well differ between countries [ 17 ], it is plausible that this is also true for environmental correlates of PA.
Moreover, physical environmental attributes in Europe are likely to differ from an American or Australian context. For example, European urban streetscapes are characterized by a more compact structure, whereas most American cities are less dense due to sub-urbanization and existence of peripheral centers [ 18 ].
Because of these dissimilarities in density, average trip distances in Europe are shorter than in the US [ 1920 ], which in turn can influence human behavior like active versus passive transport mode choices. But this revolution is not all positive. We have seen a rapid increase in greenhouse gas emissions over the last century. Sources of greenhouse gasses include automobiles, planes, factory farming and agriculture, electricity, and industrial production.
The issue with greenhouse gasses is that they absorb and emit heat. Abundant greenhouse gases in our atmosphere include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases EPA, What happens as a result of climate change?
Believe it or not, we are already experiencing some very damaging effects of climate change. Scientists predict we will begin to experience even more harmful effects of climate change in the future. At the current rate we are going, the Arctic sea ice is expected to disappear entirely by the end of the century.
The current effects we are seeing are also expected to intensify.
An even greater problem is the fact that plants and animals are unable to adapt to the quickly changing environment, and are dying off. We are seeing a rapid loss of species which will inevitably effect the natural flow of the biosphere and the individual ecosystems it is composed of.