Final War of the Roman Republic - Wikipedia
However, the relationship was one between two great minds of the ancient world, both Octavian's forces won, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and. Cleopatra VII Philopator was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Her sudden death led to a reconciliation of Octavian and Antony at Brundisium in Italy in September 40 BC. Although the. March 17, 44 BCE: The Senate, unable to take a consistent stand after Caesar's assassination, decreed that the assassins were to be immune from punishment.
Perhaps not, but the affair with a woman who made many Roman men afraid could have made the decision to assassinate Caesar easier. Cleopatra wrongly believed that the only successor of Caesar to the throne of the Roman Empire was her son - she didn't want to accept that Octavian, as adopted son of Caesar, had rights to follow the ruler.
Octavian, on the other hand, felt himself to be the only person who could legitimately replace Caesar. When his adopted father died, he was studying and undergoing military training in Illyria.
But when he discovered what happened, he quickly went back to Rome. Upon his arrival there, he discovered the consul Mark Antony, a friend of Caesar, trying to punish the killers. The conflict between them started soon after the funeral of the deceased ruler. A statue of Augustus as a younger Octavian, dated ca. Thus, she decided to start a relationship with Mark Antony and defeat Octavian using the hands of her new lover.
Octavian brought with him his chief military adviser and closest friend Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa to command his naval forces. Although the ground forces were comparable, Octavian's fleet was superior.
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Antony's fleet was made up of large vessels, but with inexperienced crews and commanders. Octavian's fleet of smaller, more manoeuvrable vessels was filled with experienced sailors. Octavian moved his soldiers across the Adriatic Sea to confront Antony near Actium.
Meanwhile, Agrippa disrupted Antony's supply lines with the navy. Gaius Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Lucius Arruntius and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus - the king of Cilicia - was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. Octavian decided not to attack and risk unnecessary losses.
Instead, Octavian wanted to battle Antony by sea where his experienced sailors could dominate. In response, Antony and Octavian engaged in Fabian strategy until the time was right. As the summer ended and autumn began to set in, both Octavian and Antony settled for a battle of attrition. The strategy of delay paid dividends to Octavian, as morale sank and prominent Romans deserted Antony's cause.
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The first conflict of the war occurred when Octavian's general Agrippa captured the Greek city and naval port of Methone. The city had previously been loyal to Antony. Although Antony was an experienced soldier, he did not understand naval combat, which led to his downfall. Antony moved his fleet to Actium where Octavian's navy and army had taken camp.
In what would become known as the Battle of ActiumAntony, on September 2, 31 BC, moved his large quinqueremes through the strait and into the open sea.
There, Octavian's light and manoeuvrable Liburnian ships drew in battle formation against Antony's warships. Cleopatra stayed behind Antony's line on her royal barge. A devastating blow to Antony's forces came when one of Antony's former generals delivered to Octavian Antony's battle plan.
Antony had hoped to use his biggest ships to drive back Agrippa's wing on the north end of his line, but Octavian's entire fleet stayed carefully out of range. Shortly after mid-day, Antony was forced to extend his line out from the protection of the shore, and then finally engage the enemy. Octavian's fleet, armed with better trained and fresher crews, made quick work of Antony's larger and less experienced navy.
Caesar's will had named him chief heir and adopted him as his son, making his name now Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus so modern historians usually call him Octavian until he received the title Augustus in 27 BCE. His claim was not well received by Antony, but after many machinations on both sides they eventually reconciled, at least on the surface. Antony and Octavian, leading legions, met the 19 legions of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in Greece.
In the first battle, Antony's forces defeated Cassius's troops, but Brutus's forces defeated those of Octavian. Cassius, not knowing about Brutus's success, committed suicide. Brutus did not follow up his advantage immediately, however, and a second battle was fought three weeks later, with Brutus facing the combined forces of Antony and Octavian. When Brutus was defeated, he also committed suicide, marking the ultimate end of the Republican cause.
After the victory at Philippi, Octavian returned to Rome, but Antony left on a triumphal tour through Greece and the East; he planned to organize and supply an army to invade Parthia, the military campaign Caesar was preparing before he was assassinated. Antony ordered Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus to answer a charge that she had secretly aided Cassius before Philippi probably a pretext to get Egyptian aid for his Parthian campaign. She sailed to Tarsus on a magnificent barge, dressed as the goddess Venus in a tableau, and utterly captivated him, especially by catering to his taste for banquets and carousing.
He soon followed her back to Alexandria, delaying his Parthian campaign, and ignoring the fact that his wife, Fulvia, and his brother, Lucius, were trying to maintain his influence in Italy against the growing power of Octavian.
The situation in Italy was deteriorating and a new civil war seemed imminent, so Antony returned to Italy. Fulvia died before he got back, and Octavian and Antony agreed to blame their disagreements on her.