Disadvantage, family breakdown and homelessness | Pursuit by The University of Melbourne
homeless according to the legal definition but do not approach their council for social trends, such as the increasing incidence of relationship breakdown, and. Though she specifically asked about divorce, I'll respond with information on general relationship breakdown as well, as not all people are. Homelessness has a wider meaning than rough sleeping. By law, you are homeless if Common causes of homelessness include a tenancy ending, relationship breakdown, or friends or family asking you to leave. In all cases, seek advice as.
But — so yeah. Partner Separations Of the 80 respondents, 12 14 instances had been separated from a partner for housing-related reasons.
Half of the partner separations had to do with rules of shelters or housing programs that excluded men, unmarried couples, or people with criminal convictions. Although respondents felt they had no housing options that would allow partners to stay together, many of them described the resulting strain: Two respondents left doubled-up situations that had accommodated partners to obtain housing that they deemed better for themselves and their children.
Two others moved into doubled-up situations that required separating from partners. One of these families was living in their car: And it was just better for him partner to send me back to my family for me to get a support down there than it was for me to stay here. Because everybody was telling us that Children and Youth would come take my daughter if they found us in a car and all this. So he just--we just sold the furniture and stuff that we had, and he bought us tickets and sent us back home.
Most respondents who experienced a housing-related separation from their partners reported negative impacts on their children. Reunification with Children and Partners All but five respondents anticipated that the separations from their children would be temporary.
Of the 57 incidences of separation from children, 34 had ended in reunification at the time of the qualitative interview. Respondents indicated that securing adequate housing permitted 14 of these reunifications.
Nine parents reported that ongoing separations would continue until the parents secured housing. These parents were living in shelter or transitional housing fivedoubled up with other households in the same apartment threeor in a subsidized apartment that was too small to accommodate all children one. Similarly, nine of the 14 separations from a partner had ended in reunification at the time of the qualitative interview, typically because the respondent or the partner was able to secure housing that could accommodate the entire family.
Reunification in three additional cases depended on housing. No parent indicated that shelters or other housing services attempted to reunite them with their families. Rather, shelter and housing programs tended to consider only members present with the respondent in evaluating housing needs, resulting in assignment to places too small for the full family. Respondents also reported that staff in shelters and transitional housing threatened to involve protective services if parents did not comply with shelter rules Mayberry et al.
Discussion As in other studies in the literature, this study shows that separations from children are rampant in families who experience homelessness.
Disadvantage, family breakdown and homelessness
In our large site sample, nearly a quarter of families who had spent a week or more in shelter were living apart from one or more of their children, although fewer than one percent had a child in foster care. Including separations at other times, over half of the qualitative subsample had been separated.
Other studies have found that both separations and foster care placements often increase in the months following shelter entry Cowal et al. Family demographic characteristics were associated with the likelihood of separations.
Older children are much more likely to be separated from their families, with children age 13 to 17 being at particularly high risk. Mothers may be more likely to keep younger children with them, with older children more likely to stay with other relatives so that they are not exposed to shelter conditions or can maintain continuity in schooling. Despite some shelters having policies excluding older male children, no evidence of an interaction effect between age and gender was found.
Larger households also faced greater difficulty staying intact or reunifying, perhaps in part due to constraints on unit size.
White families are likely to have more resources to stay out of shelter than families of color; those who nonetheless become homeless may be more troubled, leading to higher rate of separations. Both the quantitative and qualitative data point to the importance of extremely low incomes and resulting hardship in tearing families apart.
Parents faced agonizing choices between keeping children with them and protecting them from shelter conditions or providing for their welfare. As in the study by Barrow and Lawinskimost separations involved parental agency in difficult circumstances, and most separations were arranged informally between parents and other relatives. Parental behavior also mattered. Arrests and felony convictions were associated with separations in the qualitative and quantitative data respectively.
Family break-up raises homelessness risk, and critical period is longer for boys
Substance abuse, perhaps surprisingly given previous studies, figured only in the qualitative data, and having experienced domestic violence as an adult was not associated with separations, perhaps because of the long time frame.
Relatives sometimes intervened when they thought the respondent was not parenting appropriately. Local policies also influenced parental options and choices, as evidenced by the fact that rates of separation varied substantially by site and shelter. Partner separations contributed to, but did not fully explain, the lower numbers of two-parent families in the East as has been found in other studies, c. Rog and Buckner, Although some shelter staff threatened to call protective services in order to induce compliance with rules and did so in one case, the additional visibility of parenting under the watchful eyes of service providers does not explain informal separations.
Children were rarely taken into foster care. This study is the first to document the extent to which poverty and homelessness lead partners to separate from one another.The Terrifying Moment That Taught Dwayne Johnson How Precious Life Is - Oprah’s Master Class - OWN
One in ten parents had a partner living elsewhere while the family was in shelter. Housing voucher programs also separate parents where one has a criminal record. The interviews show that the forced separation of fathers from their families is hard on mothers and children. Implications for research and policy We recruited families who had spent at least a week in shelter, and it is possible that families who can resolve homelessness quickly would have lower rates of separation than the families surveyed here.
Nevertheless, results are troubling with implications for both research and policy. With respect to research, the fact that studies of children who experience homelessness exclude those who are separated from their parents means that samples are seriously biased. Whether child separations reflect hardship, parental behavior, or child behavior, children who are separated are likely to be faring worse than children who remain with their families. Estimates of effects of homelessness on children may be underestimates.
Shelter policies excluding men may have led researchers to exaggerate the role of single parenthood in homelessness. With respect to policy, programs that work with poor families, from income support and housing programs to shelters and transitional housing programs to correctional institutions to substance abuse treatment programs, should pay more attention to preserving families Separations are hard on both parents and children, and separation from parents in the family of origin is a predictor of future homelessness in adults Rog and Buckner, Family preservation may conflict with other policy goals.
So what happens when a low-income family unit breaks down within the context of these pressures? Journeys Home Read more As part of my researchalongside Professor Jan van Ours from the Erasmus University in Rotterdam, we analysed the effect of parental separation on homelessness using a unique survey of 1, disadvantaged Australians who were either homeless or at high risk of homelessness.
- Poverty, Homelessness, and Family Break-Up
- What are the statistics on homelessness due to divorce?
In Journeys Home we found that parental separation does indeed increase the likelihood of becoming homeless. This is qualitatively similar to the definition used by the Australian Bureau of Statistics where homelessness is defined as sleeping rough or squatting in abandoned buildings, staying with relatives or friends temporarily with no alternative, staying in a caravan park, boarding house, hotel or crisis accommodation. Parental separation can lead to homelessness in many ways. For example, a separation might necessitate an urgent move, thereby generating a negative financial shock.
Poverty, Homelessness, and Family Break-Up
Without enough savings or networks of family and friends to help cover this unexpected expense, low-income parents may be unable to afford secure and safe housing for their family, eventually leading to homelessness.
Family breakdown appears to be an important factor homelessness. In the Journeys Home sample, family breakdown indeed appears to be an important trigger for homelessness. Of those who have experienced homelessness, 62 per cent of respondents cite family breakdown or conflict as the main reason for becoming homeless for the first time.
However, the research linking parental separation and homelessness is scarce because most available datasets are not well suited to this purpose. Disadvantaged populations that have experienced homelessness are underrepresented in general household surveys; and datasets which only include people who are currently homeless fail to capture other segments of the disadvantaged population who might be at risk of homelessness.
Read more In contrast, Journeys Home is unique in that it covers a broad spectrum of the disadvantaged population, not just those currently homeless. In fact, 75 per cent of respondents were not homeless at the time of the first interview.