The Relationship Between Social Class And Educational Achievement - Essay - Words - BrightKite
J Am Coll Dent. Jul;40(3) The relationship between social class academic achievement and National Board scores of students in a dental school. Thus, there is a strong positive correlation between a child's socio-economic status and his academic achievement at school. The family provides a certain. Read this full essay on The Relationship Between Social Class and Educational Achievement. The Relationship Between Social Class and Educational.
Definition of social class Social class is the system of stratification typical of modern industrials societies. One of the characteristics of social class is that its basis is primarily economic i.
Discuss the relationship between social class and educational achievement.
Using income, level of education, and occupation, people in society have been put in three major social classes. High social economic status 2. Low social -economic status. Social class and its influence on students Academic Achievement Research findings have shown that one's social class affects ones attitudes and values in life including school education.
Early attendance at school and its influence on school education Research findings have shown that people of high and middle socio economic status send their children to school earlier than those of low socio economic status. They have resources and motivation to send their children to school. Going to school early gives such children a head start in school education and are advantaged over those who do not attend nursery school education.
Nursery schools are not of the same quality. Rich parents send their children to the best nursery schools and such children end up in good secondary schools and eventually the majority of them make it to university. This is because students attending good schools perform well in examinations.
Provision of books and other educational materials These boost up the education of children of well off parents. These resources give children a wider exposure to educational issues. Families pay for the education of their children both directly and indirectly. Direct outlays include fees, activity fees, examination fees, supplies, uniforms, transportation and lunches. Indirect or opportunity costs include the household labour not done or the income not earned by children in school.
Parents decide to bear the cost of educating their children if they perceive that the returns from education such as higher income in the future, a more productive household overall, or greater prestige justify the expense.
In poor families, children's labour is often critical to the income or survival of the household, especially in rural areas. Children who work have little or time to attend school. When working children who attend school have little time to study, which weakens their academic performance Lockheed; Poverty can also have an influence indirectly, by limiting the family's ability to forego adolescent earnings Banks; Attendance to good private and government maintained secondary schools Ensures the majority of children of rich and well-educated parents good academic performance leading to admission to institutions of higher learning.
Encouragement in school education Children that are encouraged by parents in their schoolwork are not likely to go to school late. While those not encouraged and may be given duties to perform before going to school. Provision of a good model in the medium of Instruction Language spoken at home influences performance in school. Parents in high and middle socio economic statuses speak English, which is the medium of instruction in schools - Their children have an advantage in school.
They also buy children English books to read and widen their ideas and to master the English language. School Activities Good schools have many activities geared to boosting up additional knowledge and skills. Parents in high and middle socio - economic status can finance school programmes such as swimming, field trips etc.
Teacher interaction Teachers also interact better with students from middle and high socio-economic status. Families and provision of basic needs like shelter, good and clothing Children from high and middle socio-economic statuses are well fed, clothed and sheltered.
Social Class and Educational Achievement – Hectic Teacher's A Level Sociology Site
These basic requirements help to keep them in school and interested in schoolwork for they are not worried about survival needs. The physical conditions of the home. Poor housing and overcrowding cannot only seriously impede the child's homework, but even his opportunity for reading and constructive play. It is important to point out that poverty, poor housing, overcrowding and other slum conditions still affect a large number of children in ways which are likely to depress their educational performance Banks, The social settings of the home and class-based neighbourhood importantly shape the cognitive and conceptual patterns that the child brings to school.
These can consequently depress or raise the level of educational performance because the children come to school with a store of knowledge and, with well developed styles of learning Brembeck; Poor children also apt to be malnourished, which lowers their achievement level even further. Nutrition is bound to have an influence on the health of the child, and so directly or indirectly on his ability to learn.
It has been shown by psychologists that a child's mental capabilities and emotional behaviour, as necessary ingredients for school education, are greatly influenced by the type of family an individual comes from. In a family where the mother during antenatal periods struggles to have a single meal a day which in most cases is deficient in appropriate vitamins and mineral content, she can hardly be expected to produce healthy children with good mental capabilities and stable behaviour.
Total or partial lack of adequate and appropriate nourishment during pregnancy, leads and has been shown by research to serious emotional depression and anxiety on the part of the mother which, no doubt, affects the unborn child. After birth, it is important that the child is raised in an environment that provides substantial stimulation. Not all children should be brought up in rich homes but a child should be given some minimum comfort in life, both physically and socially.
It is important to recognize that poverty, poor housing, overcrowding and other slum conditions still affect a large number of children in ways which are likely to depress their educational performance Banks; Further, the true indices of material deprivation are not housing, etc as such but the child's school absence through illness, neglected homework, and the inability to pay fees or take up a scholarship Ibid; They are not guaranteed the right to a successful education.
This, according to Weinberg; It can be earned in two principal ways.
One way is achievement at the cognitive level, the other is achievement at the moral level. Children of lower socio-economic backgrounds do not meet these two criteria in the same way that children of more advantaged backgrounds do.
Consequently the children from disadvantaged homes are organizationally separated from their peers. The restricted code is a speech code used by the working class.
It has limited vocabulary and is based on short, unfinished and grammatically incorrect sentences. The speech is descriptive not analytic and context bound, that is the speaker assumes the listener shares similar experiences. The elaborated code is typically used by middle class and describes a wider vocabulary characterised by longer, grammatically correct and more complex sentences.
Elaborated code is context free as the speaker does not assume the listener shares the same experiences in order to understand what is being said. These differences give middle class an advantage at school as elaborated code us used by teachers, textbooks and exams. Douglas found that working class parents were less ambitious for their children and took less interest in their education. As a result children had less motivation towards school.
Hyman argues that the values of lower class reflect a self imposed barrier to educational success, they believe they have less chance of achieving individual success and so see no point of education Similarly Sugarman argued that working class subculture has four key features that act as a barrier to educational achievement: Fatalism a belief in fate and there is nothing you can do to change your status.
Finally present time orientation: Although cultural deprivation theorists have provided some evidence for the effects one educational achievement there are still some criticisms of this approach. Keddie describes cultural deprivation as a myth and a victim blaming explanation.
She argues working class families are different not deprived and fail because of biases in education system which put working class families at a disadvantage. Evaluation of cultural deprivation Keddie argues schools should recognise and build upon working class values and reduce anti working class prejudices Troyna and Williams argue that teachers have a speech hierarchy and label middle class speech as the highest and working class speech as uneducated, this bias leads to under performance of working class students.
Instead their long working hours makes attending parents evening more difficult. In addition helping with homework may be inhibited by the fact they may not be well educated. As a result cultural deprivation theorists are exaggerating in their claims.
Overcrowding can have a direct effect by making is harder for a child to study.
- The Relationship Between Social Class And Educational Achievement
- Social Class and Achievement
- Social Class and Educational Achievement
Families living in temporary accommodation may find themselves moving more frequently resulting in changing schools and disrupting their education. Poor housing can also have indirect effects on their health and welfare, as they may be more likely to get ill or psychological distress leading to more absences in school.
Poor nutrition weakens the immune system and again leading to more absences from school due to illness Finally financial support and cost of education can affect educational achievement. Materially deprived children have to do without equipment and miss out on experiences that would have enhanced their educational achievement. Tanner et al found that costs of items such as transport, uniforms, books, computers etc place heavy burdens on poor families.
As a result poor children have to make do with hand me downs and cheaper less fashionable equipment. This may lead to poor children feeling stigmatised and bullied resulting in poorer educational achievement. Lack of funds also means that children from low incomes families often need to work. Ridge found that children in poverty take on jobs such as baby sitting and paper rounds which have negative impact on their schoolwork.
Similarly the quality of the school may play an important part in enabling some poor children to achieve. However Peter Robinson argues that tackling child poverty would be he most effective way to boost achievement.
Compensatory education Compensatory education is a policy designed to tackle the problem of cultural deprivation by providing extra resources to schools in deprived areas. This policy attempts to intervene early in the process of socialisation to compensate for deprived children Another policy is sure start children centres that deprived children have access to.
These centres provide education, care, family support and health services. The aim is to work with parents to promote physical, social and intellectual development of deprived children A final government policy is the recent EMA that is no longer in action.
However this aimed to provide financial support for materially deprived students hoping to stay in further education. This was introduced so they can afford to concentrate on their education and not pursue a full time job.
Internal Factors and Social Class Labelling The first of which is labelling, to label someone is to attach a meaning or — definition to them. Teachers may label someone as intelligent or troublesome. Studies show that teachers attach labels based more on class rather than on actual ability, and attach negative labels to working class and positive to middle class Evidence shows that labeling occurs both in high and primary school.
Becker carried out an internationalist study of labeling. The teachers often saw middle class students as the closest to ideal and working class children as furthest away. Further studies looked at school counselors; they found that counselors judge students on the basis on their social class and race. These students tended to be working class The studies show how labelling can put working class students at a disadvantage as labels lower their self esteem and reduce the help received by teachers.
Labels can also apply to the knowledge taught to students. The knowledge taught can be described as high or low status.