jajmani system | Characteristics & Facts | index-art.info
The Hindu Jajmani System. The Jajman-Kamin Relation. 3. Characteristics of the Jajmani System. 4. Advantages of the Jajmani System. 5. Disadvantages of. Jajmani system, (Hindi: deriving from the Sanskrit yajamana, “sacrificial patron These relations are supposed to continue from one generation to the next, and. This article throws light upon the nine main features of Jajmani system. The jajman-kamin relationship is hereditary in the sense that in case there is.
Etymologically, the term Jajman has been derived from the Sanskrit word Yajman, which means a person who performs a yajna. Thus if some yajna is to be performed for that the services of some Brahmins are essentially needed. It was gradually that its use was made common to everyone who hired services or to whom the services were given. It could be said that the Jajmani system is a system of distribution whereby high caste land owning families are provided services and products of various lower castes such as Khati CarpenterNai BarberKumhars PottersLobars BlacksmithsDhobi Washer manSweeper Chuhra etc.
The servicing castes are called Kamins while the castes served are called Jajmans. For services rendered the servicing castes are paid in cash or in kind grains, fodder, clothes, animal products like milk, butter etc.
Jajmani System in India: Meaning, Definition, Advantages and Disadvantages
Kamin means who works for some body or services him. In villages, durable relations obtain mainly between food-producing families and the families that supply them with goods and services. In Jajmani system, at the centre is the family of agriculturists, the zamindars. They receive services from the families of occupational castes.
One who receives services is known as Jajman, the patron. The families that provide services are known as Kamin, Kam Karney waley or Kamgars workers.
Jajmani system - Wikipedia
In other parts of India, terms such as Parjan, Pardhan, Balutedar etc. All these words literally refer to the same people, i. The castes, which happen to provide services to the agriculturists, vary from one village to another.
Every caste in the village does not happen to be a part of Jajmani system. So Jajmani system can be defined as a patron-client relationship. Yogendra Singh describes Jajmani system as a system governed by relationship based on reciprocity in inter-caste relations in villages. Ishwaran has said, that it is a system in which each caste has a role to play in a community life as a whole.
This role consists of economic, social and moral functions. Definition of Jajmani System:: The Jajmani system is a peculiarity of Indian villages. Reddy Kamins are also known as Praja. Each one works for certain family or group of families with whom he is hereditary linked. Harold Gould has described the Jajmani system as inter-familial inter-caste relationship pertaining to the patterning of super- ordinate-subordinate relations between patrons and suppliers of services.
The patrons are the families of clean castes while the suppers of services are the families of lower and unclean caste. The first detailed study of Jajmani tradition in India was made by William H. Both Kamin and Jajman are Integral part of the jajmani system and thus complementary to each other. Henty Orenstein has held that the families of village officials or village servants for example the watchman maintain jajmani relations with the whole village rather than with particular families.
The important studies code N. Although the Jajmani relationship seems to be between castes, in reality, it is between particular families belonging to particular castes. Castes in early India were economically interdependent on one another.
The specialisation of occupation led to exchange of services in village society. This system with the durable relation between a landowning family and the landless families that supply them with goods and services is called the jajmani system.
Harold Gould has described the jajmani system as inter-familial, inter-caste relationship pertaining to the patterning of superordinate-subordinate relations between patrons and suppliers of services.
The servicing castes are called kamins while the castes served are called jajmans. For the services rendered, the servicing castes are paid in cash or in kind grains, fodder, clothes, and animal products like milk, butter, etc. Sometimes, the relations between two or more castes based on supplying a few things may only be contractual but not jajmani.
For example, the weaver who is paid in cash for what he makes and sells is not entitled to customary share of the harvest. He is not a kamin and the purchaser is not his jajman. Further, even in jajmani relations, there may be some products or services that may be contracted and paid for separately. For example, the rope-makers in a village may supply farmers, under arrangements, all necessary ropes except the rope used in wells which is especially long and thick and for which special payment has to be made.
The jajmani relations entail ritual matters and social support as well as economic exchanges. Majumdar has given the example of a Thakur family of Rajput caste in a village in Lucknow district in Uttar Pradesh which is served by as many as families of ten castes for the lifecycle rites.
According to Harold Gould, these lower castes make their own jajmani arrangements either through direct exchange of labour or by paying in cash or kind.What Is Jajmani System In Sociology?
The kamins not only provide goods to their jajmans but also perform those tasks for them which pollute them jajmans - for example, washing of soiled clothes by Dhobiscutting of hair by Naisdelivery of the new-born by Naincleaning toilets by Bhangisand so on. Though Dhobis, Nais, Lobars, etc. However, when the lower caste families prosper, they discard their polluting occupations and try to get and succeed also ritual specialists to serve them.
Jajmani System: Concept, Functions and Values of Jajmani System
The jajmani links are between families rather than castes. Thus, a family of Rajputs gets its metal tools from a particular family of the Lobar blacksmith caste and not from all Lobar families in the village. The Rajput family also gets its tools and repairs from the descendants of the same Lohar family whose men made tools for their forefathers.
If one of the associated families dies out, another of its lineage may take its place in the relationship. Orenstein has held that the families of village officials or village servants for example, watchmen maintain jajmani relations with the whole village rather than with particular families.
The village servants may also have tax-free use of village land. Some service families maintain jajmani relations with a segment of the village rather than individual families. Such families have rights to serve all those who live in a particular section of the village. Referring to the jajmani system, Kolenda has said: What is the function of the system? What are the roles involved? What are its norms and values?
How is the power and authority distributed in the system? How is the jajmam system related to other systems? What is the motivation in maintaining the jajmani system? The relations are durable in that the link may be inherited on both sides. A blacksmith serves the same farmer family that his father and grand-father served.
It is not within the power of the Jajman to remove a particular Kamin or Praja. Jajmani System Feature 3. Goods Against Services Barter exchange: The relationship between Jajman and Kainin is not purely economic but is a human relationship.
Accordingly Jajman takes full responsibility for the welfare of kamin and kamin serves Jajman with full dedication and devotion. The amount of food grain given to kamin depends upon the nature of services rendered.
Oscar Lewis conducted a detailed study of the Jajmani system and collected some data regarding Jajmani payments: Jajmani System Feature 4. Wiser, peace and satisfaction or contentment is a significant feature of Jajmani system which it provides to the villagers.
The kamins of a jajman feel a sense of security. They are not worried of finding employment. This system provides relief to the jajmans also. They are assured of the services of the kamins.
Thus both Jajman and Kamin get a sense of security and peaceful living in the village. The old age customs and traditions had made the adjustment between the two and nobody has to bother.
Jajmani System Feature 5. Difference in Scope of Work: Under jajmani system the range of work of different kamins is not uniform. There is no specific provision that certain kamin should work for one family or one village.