Friedrich von Schiller: the Romantic lover | Stage | The Guardian
German literature: Weimar Classicism: Goethe and Schiller died in at age six: Goethe's later relationships with literary contemporaries were ambiguous. Schiller said the marriage brought him the "harmonious parity" he needed to how they inspired each other, in Goethe and Schiller: History of a Friendship. Paypal and credit card. Topics. Friedrich Schiller · The Observer. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer and statesman. His works include four . In , Goethe formed a close relationship to Charlotte von Stein , an older, married woman. In , Friedrich Schiller wrote to Goethe offering friendship; they had previously had only a mutually wary relationship ever since first.
His next composition, Die Leiden des jungen Wertherbrought Goethe nearly instant worldwide acclaim. On the strength of his reputation, Goethe was invited in to the court of then eighteen-year-old Duke Carl Augustwho would later become Grand Duke of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. From to Goethe took his Italienische Resie, in part out of his growing enthusiasm for the Winckelmannian rebirth of classicism. There he met the artists Kaufmann and Tischbein, and also Christiane Vulpius —with whom he held a rather scandalous love affair until their eventual marriage in Although Goethe had first met Friedrich Schiller inwhen the latter was a medical student in Karlsruhe, there was hardly an immediate friendship between them.
When Schiller came to Weimar inGoethe dismissively considered Schiller an impetuous though undeniably talented upstart. Inthe pair became intimate friends and collaborators, and began nothing less than the most extraordinary period of literary production in German history. Working alongside Schiller, Goethe finally completed his Bildungsroman, the great Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahreas well as his epic Hermann und Dorothea and several balladic pieces.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe died on March 22, in Weimar, having finally finished Faust the previous year. Philosophical Background The Kultfigur of Goethe as the unspoiled and uninfluenced genius is doubtless over-romanticized. Goethe himself gave rise to this myth, both in his conversations with others and in his own quasi-biographical work, Dichtung und Wahrheit No disciple of any particular philosopher or system, he instead borrows in a syncretic way from a number of different and even opposing thought systems in the construction of his Weltanschauung.
In logic it seemed strange to me that I had so to tear asunder, isolate, and, as it were, destroy, those operations of the mind which I had performed with the greatest ease from my youth upwards, and this in order to see into the right use of them. Of the thing itself, of the world, and of God, I thought I knew about as much as the professor himself; and, in more places than one, the affair seemed to me to come into a tremendous strait. Philosophy apparently held just slightly less interest than good pastry.
Notwithstanding this estimation, indelible philosophical influences are nevertheless discernible. But it is clear that there are philosophical reasons besides these practical ones.
Only through the interplay of these oppositions, which Rousseau never came to recognize, could one attain classical perfection.
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Although educated in a basically Leibnizian-Wolffian worldview, it was Spinoza from whom Goethe adopted the view that God is both immanent with the world and identical with it. While there is little to suggest direct influence on other aspects of his thought, there are certain curious similarities.
Both think that ethics should consist in advice for influencing our characters and eventually to making us more perfect individuals.
And both hold that happiness means an inner, almost stoically tranquil superiority over the ephemeral troubles of the world. Yet Goethe only came to read him seriously in the late s, and even then only with the help of Karl Reinhold While he shared with Kant the rejection of externally imposed norms of ethical behavior, his reception was highly ambivalent. The critique of reason was like a literary critique: Scientific Background and Influence Goethe considered his scientific contributions as important as his literary achievements.
But court life in Weimar brought Goethe for the first time in contact with experts outside his literary comfort zone. His directorship of the silver-mine at nearby Ilmenau introduced him to a group of mineralogists from the Freiburg Mining Academy, led by Johann Carl Voigt His discovery of the intermaxillary bone was a result of his study with Jena anatomist Justus Christian Loder Increasingly fascinated by botany, he studied the pharmacological uses of plants under August Karl Batsch at the University of Jena, and began an extensive collection of his own.
He has alternately been received as a universal man of learning whose methods and intuitions have contributed positively to many aspects of scientific discourse, or else denounced as a dilettante incapable of understanding the figures— Linnaeus and Isaac Newton—against whom his work is a feeble attempt to revolt. Positivists of the early twentieth century virtually ignored him. Plants were classified according to their relation to each other into species, genera, and kingdom.
The problem for Goethe was two-fold. Although effective as an organizational schema, it failed to distinguish organic from inorganic natural objects. And by concentrating only on the external characteristics of the plant, it ignored the inner development and transformation characteristic of living things generally. Goethe felt that the exposition of living objects required the same account of inner nature as it did for the account of the inner unity of a person.
But whereas their versions dealt with the generation and corruption of living beings, Goethe sought the common limitations imposed on organic beings by external nature. But he only fully lays out the position as an account of the form and transformation of organisms in the Zur Morphologie. In the plant, for example, this determination of each individual member by the whole arises insofar as every organ is built according to the same basic form.
As he wrote to Herder on May 17, Any way you look at it, the plant is always only leaf, so inseparably joined with the future germ that one cannot think the one without the other. Through the careful study of natural objects in terms of their development, and in fact only in virtue of it, we are able to intuit morphologically the underlying pattern of what the organic object is and must become.
The morphological method is thus a combination of careful empirical observation and a deeper intuition into the idea that guides the pattern of changes over time as an organism interacts with its environment.
While the visible transformations are apparent naturalistically, the inner laws by which they are necessary are not. To do that, the scientist needs to describe the progressive modification of a single part of an object as its modification over time relates to the whole of which it is the part.
Polarity between a freely creative impulse and an objectively structuring law is what allows the productive restraint of pure creativity and at the same time the playfulness and innovation of formal rules. But rather than a fanciful application of an aesthetic doctrine to the nature, Goethe believed that the creativity great artists, insofar as they are great, was a reflection of the purposiveness of nature.
As with a plant, the creative forces of life must be guided, trained, and restricted, so that in place of something wild and ungainly can stand a balanced structure which achieves, in both organic nature and in the work of art, its full intensification in beauty.
The early drafts of Torquato Tasso begun in the sfor example, reveal its protagonist as a veritable force of nature, pouring out torrential feelings upon a conservative and repressed external world. By the time of the published version inthe Sturm und Drang character of Tasso is polarized against the aristocratically reposed and reasonable character of Antonio.
Only in conjunction with Antonio can Tasso come into classical fullness and perfection. As the interplay of polarities in nature is the principle of natural wholeness, so is it the principle of equipoise in the classical drama. Only from the polarized tension does his drive to self-formation achieve intensification and eventually classical perfection.
I take no pride in it At the same time, it was the source of perhaps his greatest disappointment. Like his work on morphology, his theory of colors fell on mostly deaf ears. Thus, while Goethe esteems Newton as a redoubtable genius, his issue is with those half-witted apologists who effectively corrupted that very same edifice they fought to defend. The refraction of pure white light projected at a prism produces the seven individual colors.
Pragmatically, this allowed Newton to quantify the angular bending of light beams and to predict which colors would be produced at a given frequency. That frequency could be calculated simply by accounting for the distance between the light source and the prism and again the distance from the prism to the surface upon which the color was projected. But by reducing the thing itself to its perceptible qualities, the Newtonians had made a grave methodological mistake.
The derivative colors produced by the prismatic experiments are identified with the spectrum that appears in the natural world.
But since the light has been artificially manipulated to fit the constraints of the experiment, there is no prima facie reason to think that natural light would feature the same qualities.
Goethe, Romanticism and the Anglo-American Crit – Romanticism on the Net – Érudit
Effects we can perceive, and a complete history of those effects would, in fact, sufficiently define the nature of the thing itself. The colors are acts of lights; its active and passive modifications: A light beam is no static thing with a substantial ontological status, but an oppositional tension that we perceive only relationally. Through careful observation of their interplay alone do we apprehend color.
Color arises from the polarity of light and darkness. Darkness is not the absence of light, as both Newton and most contemporary theorists believe, but its essential antipode, and thereby an integral part of color. Through a series of experiments on his thesis that color is really the interplay of light and dark, Goethe discovered a peculiarity that seemed to confute the Newtonian system.
If Newton is right that color is the result of dividing pure light, then there should be only one possible order to the spectrum, according to the frequency of the divided light. But there are clearly two ways to produce a color spectrum: Something bright, seen through something turbid, appears yellow.
If the turbidity of the medium gradually increases, then what had appeared as yellow passes over into yellowish-red and eventually into bright-red as its frequency proportionally decreases. Something dark, seen through something turbid, appears blue; with a decreasing turbity, it appears violet.
The color produced also depends upon the color of the material on which the light or shadow is cast. This article is over 9 years old A portrait of Friedrich von Schiller. But for some time Germany seemed to forget all about the man who was arguably the country's most famous Romantic thinker. Friedrich von Schiller is back, along with a new fascination with his tumultuous love life. Just as Britain has been rediscovering the attraction of its Romantics, after documentaries about Byron by actor Rupert Everett and the release of Bright Star, the new Jane Campion film about Keats, Germany is also enjoying a romantic revival.
And the th anniversary of Schiller's birth has given scholars the chance to rediscover one of its most distinguished poets and philosophers.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
A racy new film, Schiller, portrays the poet as a dashing, flame-haired womaniser, mixing high philosophy with simple lust, and dramatises his feverish search for recognition and success as an author. Meanwhile, a string of biographies have revealed, among other things, that piano music and foul apples inspired Schiller to write, that a brothel visit probably triggered his first passionate scribblings "Your glances, when they smile love, could stir marble to life"and that the loves of his life were two aristocratic sisters to whom he penned a joint love letter.
Birgit Lahann, author of Schiller: Rebel from Arcadia, describes how the poet became the "pop star of his time" and a "cult throughout Germany": His charm lay as much in his disorganised, chaotic appearance as in his brilliance. But most intriguing of all is what she refers to as his "double-love" — "his relationship to two women which was the stuff of the best type of scandal".
Detailed in Volker Hage's book, From a Fireball to a Classic, is the "dare-devil" Schiller's erotic obsession focused on two sisters, Charlotte, 21, and Caroline von Lengefeld, 24, the latter of whom was unhappily married. Schiller, then 29, spent the summer with them in — "a summer which he so didn't want to end he dragged it out until November until the concerned mother of the young ladies told him it was time to go home," according to Hage.
Schiller, who died at 45 in Mayexpressed his love to the women whom he referred to as "the angels of my life".