Chapter 3: Cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo
e.g. dog, lion. · Omnivores which eat meet end plants,. e.g. pig. · Herbivores which eat plants . How to hold sheep and goat to check their teeth. How to hold . Instead, a hard dental pad on the frontal part of the upper jaw serves in place of teeth. Each formula represents the number of teeth a goat has. Types Of Teeth; Dental Formula what is meant by the terms: ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, egestion, peristalsis and chyme; the.
The study also found a correlation between mane length and colour and several ecological factors; in males over five years of age, mane length was closely associated with injury, leading to a possible signal that a short mane was an indication of a lower fighting ability.
Testosterone levels were found to be higher in males with darker manes, and therefore a possible signal of increased fighting ability. Further, darker maned males were generally better fed suggesting a higher dominance level or better hunting ability. Given the possible signalling properties of the mane, the study set out to test whether lions actually used these signals in their social behaviour.
Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/The Gut and Digestion
Loud speakers were used to broadcast the sounds of a female in oestrus. Where there is more than one female in oestrus at any given time, the female is able to make a choice as to which male to mate with. The study therefore looked at mating situations where a male mated with more than one female within an hour, on the assumption that at least one of the females was there by choice. To try and answer the question why females did not respond to the signal of mane length, when a short mane could be an indicator of injury, the study used dummy lions of varying mane length and colour.
The tests showed that females would approach a darker maned dummy, but did not take account of mane length. Males avoided the dark maned males, and were extremely sensitive to mane length, avoiding the longer maned dummy.
Data from these studies, when added to results from previous studies concluded that darker maned males are more likely to reside in a pride, are more likely to survive injury, have more surviving offspring, and are less likely to be wounded. Short manes appear to be a signal of short term injury. The study went on to ask the question why all males do not have dark manes, hypothesising that there must be some sort of cost to growing and maintaining one.
Males in cooler climates tend to have darker manes than those that live in warmer climates, and a male taken from a warm climate to a cool one is likely to show a darkening of their mane as they acclimatise to the new location. Lions are particularly sensitive to heat as they do not sweat and can only dispel heat through their skin, a process made less efficient by having a mane, especially a dark one.
It is therefore highly likely that only the strongest, fittest males can afford to maintain a dark mane. The study goes on to suggest that global warming and rising temperatures will have an effect on lion populations as the heat stress of darker manes becomes too much and the trait will become less common, with negative effects on photographic tourism and legal trophy hunting industries.
So why are the lions of Tsavo maneless?
Aging Sheep and Goats By Their Teeth
A study of the number of females in prides has refuted the notion that smaller group sizes lead to reduced sexual competition. Further, hunting has been banned within the Park for many years dispelling the idea that the off take of large maned males has bred smaller manes into the population. As such, maybe there is a higher environmental cost to holding a mane in this hot, arid area? The thornbush habitat may have an effect. Males tend to take part in hunting more often in closed bushy habitats than in open grassy plains where their conspicuous mane makes hunting more difficult.
In such habitats a mane can easily get snagged as they stalk through the Bush impeding movement and making noise. Thirdly, the burrs of the plant Pupalia lappacea are abundant in Tsavo and even the dextrous fingers of the local baboons struggle to entangle them from long hair.
What is not clear is whether manelessness has evolved as an adaptation to some aspect of the Tsavo environment i. If mane hair is pulled out in each generation of male lions, young males would be expected to have larger manes, and individuals in more open habitats would be expected to retain their manes longer. If manelessness is a newly evolved adaptation, the mechanism may involve testosterone or its derivativeswhich is linked to hair growth and hair loss in mammals.
The mane in males develops during their second year and is complete in the fifth; mane colour ranges from blond to black. For more information on the role of the lions' mane we suggest the following further reading: Whisker patternation is therefore used for individual identification. Tail ,  Lions although not all lions are the only cat with a tassel at the tip of its tail, containing a hard "spur" which is separated from the last vertebra of the tail.
The tuft is absent at birth, developing between 5 and 7 months old. The purpose of the spur is unknown although it contains nerves and blood vessels, and maybe some sort of tactile organ. It is has also been suggested that the lion may use it to cause damage while hunting by flicking it at prey. The black fur on the tail, along with the black marks on the back of the ears, are useful to help one lion follow another through long grass.
Eyes Cubs are born with blue eyes that change to amber or brown when aged two to three months. The eyes are proportionally larger than in comparable-sized animals and have round pupils.
Lions have a second eyelid, called a nictitating membrane, which can be drawn over to clean and protect the eye. A reflective coating at the back of the eye reflects even moonlight, making their eyes appear to glow red in the dark.
The coating gives lions sight eight times better than a human at night. These are the incisor cuttingthe caninethe premolarand the molar grinding. The incisors occupy the front of the tooth row in both upper and lower jaws. They are normally flat, chisel-shaped teeth that meet in an edge-to-edge bite. Their function is cutting, slicing, or gnawing food into manageable pieces that fit into the mouth for further chewing. The canines are immediately behind the incisors.
In many mammals, the canines are pointed, tusk-shaped teeth, projecting beyond the level of the other teeth. In carnivores, they are primarily offensive weapons for bringing down prey.
In other mammals such as some primates, they are used to split open hard surfaced food. The premolars and molars are at the back of the mouth. Depending on the particular mammal and its diet, these two kinds of teeth prepare pieces of food to be swallowed by grinding, shearing, or crushing. The specialised teeth—incisors, canines, premolars, and molars—are found in the same order in every mammal.