The Role of Parenting Skills Training in the Prevention of Addiction of Children
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Interventions Several different intervention approaches were evaluated in the last decade. Furthermore, many of the studies in Table 1 were evaluated by researchers who developed, and sometimes delivered, their own interventions.
These kinds of research designs may lead to bias in the research. One solution to this potential bias is to have other research teams evaluate programs. In addition, despite the strong recommendation made by Halford et al. A larger problem for this field is that most relationship education services that are delivered are not being evaluated at all.
Thus, linkages between practices as defined by Halford et al. Design As indicated in Table 1there is much diversity in the methodological quality of the studies. On the positive side, there have been several randomized clinical trials RCTs implemented in the last decade. This kind of design is the strongest in terms of establishing effects of an intervention more on RCTs below.
Though we did not examine effect sizes, meta-analyses conducted by others Blanchard et al. The majority of the studies conducted in the last decade used weaker designs.
In terms of the type of control group, most studies used a no-intervention control group, and the second most frequently used control group was an alternative intervention. There were no placebo-control group designs to control for attention and expectations, which could provide alternative explanations for positive effects.
In research conducted prior to the studies reviewed in the current paper, several studies used placebo controls such as reading a relationship book e. In general, relationship education programs have outperformed placebo control groups. Measuring outcomes The majority of the studies revealed positive effects of relationship education on key indicators of relationship quality including communication quality, conflict management skills and relationship satisfaction. In addition, very few studies measured other important dimensions of relationship quality including measures of protective factors, such as commitment, friendship, and passion.
Follow-ups The absence of long-term follow-up is notable.
More studies need to include longer-term follow-ups, as the vast majority of studies assess outcomes only at post-test.
This is a major problem, because the goals of prevention programs are by definition long-term in nature. In addition, there need to be at least three data points to apply state-of-the-art growth curve analyses to evaluate change over time.
Without more assessment points, non-linear effects in relationship education cannot be captured.
In general the data that do exist show that long-term follow-up trajectories display a tendency toward attenuation e. However, these findings require replication with a control group and in a randomized clinical trial. In general, although most researchers recommend booster sessions, few programs use them, fewer studies evaluate them, and those that do have trouble persuading couples to participate e. Suggested Program of Research and Interventions with Diverse Populations Many of the studies reviewed in Table 1 are not incorporated into a systematic program of planned research.
Here, we offer a model for researchers who want to develop a program of research consistent with the best practices for relationship education research. The next step is to pilot the intervention and then use a pre-post, no control group design, to see if there are effects over time and if it is acceptable to the population of interest see Markman et al.
Then, research teams can move first to quasi-experimental studies, then to randomized clinical trials, and finally to dissemination trials. It is also important to have other researchers cross-validate findings to ensure that results are not biased. Some research teams have been successful in moving studies in a laboratory setting i.
While more research is needed, evaluations of dissemination studies have yielded promising findings e. Thus, there is emerging evidence from the past decade that research-based programs developed in university settings are transportable to a number of community settings see also Wood et al.
The transportability of relationship education constitutes one of the major accomplishments in the field because we have now reached hundreds of thousands of people since the last review, including close to a quarter of a million people in Oklahoma alone Ooms, To show that a mechanism of change is operating, evaluations first must show that the targets of the intervention e. The findings presented in Table 1 and meta-analyses e. Most of the studies reviewed in Table 1 as well as studies from prior decades show that couples improve their ability to communicate from pre to post assessment compared to control groups.
However, mixed findings emerge when researchers examine the extent to which changes in such target variables are associated with other outcomes of interest.
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In at least one case, the findings were not in the predicted direction see Schilling et al. However, these results may be attributable to correlations between husband and wife interactions that were not taken into account Stanley et al.
Nonetheless, the existing body of research on mechanisms of change in relationships leaves much to be discovered. Future work should continue to attempt to identify why programs are successful and what the key ingredients are to helping couples and individuals improve their relationships.
The relationship education and marital therapy field can benefit from following the lead of the conduct disorder and substance abuse fields both of which as demonstrated stronger evidence for mechanism of change of therapeutic interventions in these areas.
Moderators Moderators are also very important to consider when evaluating relationship education programs. Here, the questions revolve around the extent to which a program works differently and produces different outcomes for one group versus another.
A major issue in the field that has emerged in the last decade, for example, is whether relationship education programs work better for high risk e.
The answers to questions about which groups benefit more or less are decidedly mixed and moderators remain a burning topic for the next decade to tackle. Wadsworth and Markman in press provide a more detailed discussion of moderator effects.
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One of the most interesting research issues in the field is how to design a randomized clinical trial. We focus on these projects because their very large sample sizes and in-depth measurement mean that they have the power to make a significant impact on this field in the coming decade.
Just as there are many ways to have a good relationship, there are many ways to do a very good randomized clinical trial. Both of these studies focus on the effectiveness of relationship education delivered by community organizations to couples with low-income levels. Thus, these projects are evaluations of relationship education in general, not a particular approach to relationship education see www. With regard to the design of these RCTs, both projects include random assignment of couples to either relationship education or a no-treatment control group.
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An intent-to-treat approach is more common in studies evaluating the implementation of a program rather than the effectiveness of a specific curriculum and it involves analyzing data from all participants as they were randomized, regardless of whether they completed the intervention.
Another characteristic that different about these studies versus most studies in this field is that neither of them conducted what are typical pre assessments, wherein which key outcome variables are measured before the intervention. Instead, they collected baseline information on demographics and are now collecting data at planned intervals post-intervention.
The rationale for not conducting pre-assessments is that random assignment of couples to conditions assures that all pre-test variables, if collected, would be equal across groups.
Avoiding a comprehensive pre-assessment also decreases the risk of the assessment serving as an unmeasureable intervention in itself. Under these assumptions, comparing groups at follow-up assessment points will answer the research questions effectively. Although this makes sense, uncertainty remains because pre-test differences may exist due to unplanned selection effects or chance occurrences e.
In addition, because there are no pre-post data, questions regarding mechanisms of change cannot be directly investigated. Nevertheless, despite their high self-esteem, behavioral problems frequencies of substances abuse are higher among children who have been raised using indulgent parenting style. This increase in risk of addiction results from both genetic and environmental factors.
Families with a parent with addiction are generally harmful, unpredictable, chaotic, and disorganized. Parents with substance abuse not only have fewer parenting skills, but also have less control and supervision over their children. Moreover, the parent-child interaction quality is not satisfactory and more parent-child conflicts are observed in such families. These issues can have negative effects on the socialization process social skills training of the child.
In these families, there is a higher possibility of child abuse, and these factors increase parenting problems and child maltreatment. Research has shown that these children experience the use of illegal substances at younger ages compared to others.
Early interventions increase protective factors positive parent-child interaction and parental behavior and decrease subsequent risk factors at older ages.
With these skills, they can raise accomplished individuals who have thinking, decision-making, and problem-solving skills regarding everyday challenges and can solve their daily problems with assertion and self-control.Communication Skills in Hindi - How to talk to anyone training classes development 2018
The range of effects of positive parenting is so extensive that it clearly justifies the necessity of specific policies in this regard by authorities of the mental health system of Iran. The training of these principles should be incorporated into the comprehensive treatment programs of parents who refer to health centers for counseling and treatment by therapists and counselors.
Moreover, policy makers and authorities, especially community mental health officials, should pay attention to the development of parenting skills education programs for young couples and even young individuals before marriage. Child temperamental flexibility moderates the relation between positive parenting and adolescent adjustment.