Indigenous-French Relations | The Canadian Encyclopedia
The French chose to settle along the Bay of Fundy characteristic of Indigenous- French relations up to the fall soldiers and all his other subjects treat the Natives This sovereignty was exercised against European with the French and resistance to Anglo-American. Get an answer for 'How did French relations with the Indians compare with those of Spain? of relations between these two empires and the Native Americans of the New France at its height had about 70, total settlers in the New World, on the respective economic and societal needs of the two European nations. Gold, silver, and furs attracted European exploration, colonization, and The Spanish lost their stronghold in North America as the French, Dutch, and British efforts—fostered especially good relationships with native peoples as they expanded westward. . The Lost Colony of Roanoke - settlement and disappearance.
Royal instructions to Governor Courcelle in emphasized that "the officers, soldiers and all his other subjects treat the Natives with kindness, justice and fairness, without harm or violence. Lawrence basin and its hinterland the French Crown also recognized that Indigenous peoples were part of independent nations governed by their own laws and customs. They were referred to as allies, not subjects. Consequently, a military tribunal adjudicated legal proceedings involving Indigenous persons and French colonists.
This sovereignty was exercised against European rivals through the allied nations, not at their expense through the suppression of local customs and independence. When the Mi'kmaq eventually signed a treaty of peace and friendship with British authorities at Halifax inthe Abenaki who had taken refuge in Canada rebuffed the official delegate of the governor in Boston.
The missionaries centred their evangelization efforts on the sedentary, horticultural and strategically located Huron-Wendat confederacy see Ste. Marie Among the Hurons. Factionalism that arose out of favouritism shown to converts and epidemics that decimated the population virtually brought the mission to a close.
On two occasions, the Jesuits were spared execution or exile on charges of witchcraft only by French threats to cut off the trade on which the Wendat had become dependent.
Eight Jesuits, including the leader of the Ste.
Following the dispersal in —49 by the Haudenosauneethe missionaries turned to other groups in the Great Lakes basin, including the Iroquois Confederacy, to little effect. Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons: Although the Innu did not remain long, some Abenaki refugees came to settle, and finally Wendat who escaped from the Haudenosaunee conquest of their territory. Eventually there were reserves near each of the three French bridgeheads of settlement: The French sought to attract the Indigenous people close to their settlements with the view to having them adopt French agricultural sedentary life.
The English, in New England for example, drove Indigenous people off their traditional lands into the hinterland in order to establish agricultural holdings and permanent settlement.
Nevertheless, reserves in Canada were also relocated from time to time at ever greater distances from the principal towns, mostly because of the desire of the missionaries to stem illegal trade and isolate Indigenous converts from the temptations of alcohol, prostitution and gambling. It was often on the reserves that canoemen, scouts and warriors were recruited for trade and war.
It is possible that this political organization, whose membership evolved over the years, dates back to the early days of the French regime at the time when the first reserves were created in the St. Beginning with European fishermen and sailors along the Atlantic seaboard, the practice spread into the hinterland as traders and interpreters, later unlicensed coureurs des boisand finally garrison troops came into contact with hinterland communities.
Native American Clashes with European Settlers
Voyageurs and canoemen travelling to and from the upper country of Canada for the fur trade relied on Indigenous women to make and break camp, cook, carry baggage and serve as mistresses. Canon law forbade the marriage of Catholics with pagans, so missionaries would often instruct and baptize adults and children in order to regularize such unions.
InLouis XV forbade most mixed marriages; nevertheless, the rise of mixed communities in the Great Lakes basin, particularly along Lake Superiorindicated the prevalence of the practice. Responses were drafted to royal orders in the light of these deliberations, new directives were suggested and these were all sent to France by the last vessels in the autumn.
The Indigenous voice was an important element in this convoluted form of royal despotism.
French and Dutch exploration in the New World (article) | Khan Academy
Another aspect of the dilution of absolutism was the avoidance of the imposition of the harsh aspects of French criminal law on Indigenous defendants. Lawrence River and further inland toward the Great Lakes. These Native Americans competed for exclusive status as intermediaries between other Indian traders and the French. Although Native Americans did most of the work, tracking, trapping, and skinning the animals and transporting the pelts to French traders, they drove hard bargains for their furs.
French traders exchanged textiles, weapons, and metal goods for the furs of animals such as beavers, bears, and wolves. The trade strengthened traditional clan leaders' positions by allowing them to distribute these trade goods to their clan members as they saw fit. Jesuit Catholic missionaries managed to convert considerable numbers of Huron because the priests learned the local languages and exhibited bravery in the face of danger. French officials offered additional incentive for conversion by allowing Christian Hurons to purchase French muskets.
French and Dutch colonization
In the eighteenth century, the Dutch and English competed with the French for trade and territory, which gave local Indians continued economic, diplomatic, and military leverage as Europeans competed for their trade and military alliances through the seventeenth century.
Unlike the French and Spanish, the Dutch did not emphasize religious conversion in their relationships with Native Americans.
They established a fur trade alliance with the Iroquois confederacy, the most powerful Native American empire in 17th-century North America.
Although smallpox and other European diseases drastically reduced the Iroquois population, the confederation remained strong because they negotiated an advantageous alliance with the Dutch. Dutch weapons helped the Iroquois to defeat the Huron, who were leaders of the other major pan-Indian confederacy in the area. As often as possible, Native Americans took advantage of rivalries among European powers to maintain or enhance their own political and economic positions.
Just three years after Hernan Cortes captured Tenochtitlan, the French government sent its first explorer to poke around North America and look for what many European explorers had searched for from the beginning, a passage to the East. Now, although the explorers never found this Northwest passage because it didn't exist, they, like the Spanish, quickly learned that there were quite a lot of riches to be had in the Americas themselves.
In this video, I'd like to take some time to talk about two of the lesser known European colonies in the New World, New France up here in pink and New Netherland, this little orange dot right here. Now, you can see that compared to the extent of New Spain, here in the Caribbean and Mexico and expanding in South America, these colonial exploits were pretty small indeed, but I think it's important to learn a little bit about them because they help us see the ways in which the different goals of colonial powers led to very different types of settlement in the New World and very different relationships between Europeans and Native Americans.
Now, though it's a little bit hard to see on this map, these two colonies focused their efforts around two rivers, the Saint Lawrence River and the Hudson River which runs along this little orange strip here. And along these rivers, you can still see the cities that were founded by these colonial ventures like Quebec City up in Canada, later Montreal and down here of course the most famous which started as New Amsterdam and later became the city of New York.
Now, looking at this map, you might wonder, why was it that Spain have these giant swabs of territory really from coast to coast where New France and New Netherland really only followed along these rivers, at least to start with? And the answer really lies in this idea of goals.
And New France and New Netherland sat on the rivers, rivers being the highways of the world really up until the invention of the railroad, because they were primarily interested in trade. So let's talk a little bit more about that. French and Dutch explorers were particularly interested in gaining valuable furs to trade from Native Americans living in the Northern part of North America that they could then sell in Europe.
Long before European colonization began, beavers had been hunted pretty much to extinction in Europe while beaver pelts themselves were usually used to create fancy hats.