Blacksmith damsel fish and algae symbiotic relationship

Chromis punctipinnis - WikiVisually

The diet includes marine algae and zooplankton. The blacksmith is symbiotic with the señorita. Taxonomy (biology) - The same relationship, expressed as a cladogram While the term damselfish describes a group of marine fish . The blacksmith Chromis punctipinnis, an abundant planktivorous damselfish off southern . with Sargassum, such a relationship would constitute a symbiosis. Geographic variation in the damselfish-red alga cultivation mutualism in the Indo- West Pacific. BMC Evolutionary Biology, ; (in press) [link].

Taxonomy biology — Taxonomy is the science of defining groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics and giving names to those groups. The exact definition of taxonomy varies from source to source, but the core of the remains, the conception, naming. There is some disagreement as to whether biological nomenclature is considered a part of taxonomy, the broadest meaning of taxonomy is used here. In earlier literature, the term had a different meaning, referring to morphological taxonomy, ideals can, it may be said, never be completely realized.

They have, however, a value of acting as permanent stimulants. Some of us please ourselves by thinking we are now groping in a beta taxonomy, turrill thus explicitly excludes from alpha taxonomy various areas of study that he includes within taxonomy as a whole, such as ecology, physiology, genetics, and cytology. He further excludes phylogenetic reconstruction from alpha taxonomy, thus, Ernst Mayr in defined beta taxonomy as the classification of ranks higher than species.

This activity is what the term denotes, it is also referred to as beta taxonomy. How species should be defined in a group of organisms gives rise to practical and theoretical problems that are referred to as the species problem. The scientific work of deciding how to define species has been called microtaxonomy, by extension, macrotaxonomy is the study of groups at higher taxonomic ranks, from subgenus and above only, than species.

While some descriptions of taxonomic history attempt to date taxonomy to ancient civilizations, earlier works were primarily descriptive, and focused on plants that were useful in agriculture or medicine. There are a number of stages in scientific thinking. Early taxonomy was based on criteria, the so-called artificial systems.

Later came systems based on a complete consideration of the characteristics of taxa, referred to as natural systems, such as those of de Jussieu, de Candolle and Bentham. The publication of Charles Darwins Origin of Species led to new ways of thinking about classification based on evolutionary relationships and this was the concept of phyletic systems, from onwards.

This approach was typified by those of Eichler and Engler, the advent of molecular genetics and statistical methodology allowed the creation of the modern era of phylogenetic systems based on cladistics, rather than morphology alone. Taxonomy has been called the worlds oldest profession, and naming and classifying our surroundings has likely been taking place as long as mankind has been able to communicate 2.

Animal — Animals are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia. The animal kingdom emerged as a clade within Apoikozoa as the group to the choanoflagellates.

Mexico – Fish, Marine Life, Birds and Terrestrial Life

Animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently at some point in their lives and their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later in their lives. All animals are heterotrophs, they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance, most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about million years ago.

Animals can be divided broadly into vertebrates and invertebrates, vertebrates have a backbone or spine, and amount to less than five percent of all described animal species. They include fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, the remaining animals are the invertebrates, which lack a backbone.

These include molluscs, arthropods, annelids, nematodes, flatworms, cnidarians, ctenophores, the study of animals is called zoology. The word animal comes from the Latin animalis, meaning having breath, the biological definition of the word refers to all members of the kingdom Animalia, encompassing creatures as diverse as sponges, jellyfish, insects, and humans. Aristotle divided the world between animals and plants, and this was followed by Carl Linnaeus, in the first hierarchical classification.

In Linnaeuss original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Insecta, Pisces, Amphibia, Aves, and Mammalia. Since then the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, inErnst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into two subkingdoms, Metazoa and Protozoa. The protozoa were later moved to the kingdom Protista, leaving only the metazoa, thus Metazoa is now considered a synonym of Animalia.

Animals have several characteristics that set apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, which separates them from bacteria and they are heterotrophic, generally digesting food in an internal chamber, which separates them from plants and algae. They are also distinguished from plants, algae, and fungi by lacking cell walls. All animals are motile, if only at life stages. In most animals, embryos pass through a stage, which is a characteristic exclusive to animals.

With a few exceptions, most notably the sponges and Placozoa and these include muscles, which are able to contract and control locomotion, and nerve tissues, which send and process signals 3. Chordate — Chordates are deuterostomes, as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth.

They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates, in the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized via segmentation. There are also additional extinct taxa, the Vertebrata are sometimes considered as a subgroup of the clade Craniata, consisting of chordates with a skull, the Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores.

The Symbiotic Relationship of Algae and Spotted Salamanders

Of the more than 65, living species of chordates, the worlds largest and fastest animals, the blue whale and peregrine falcon respectively, are chordates, as are humans.

Fossil chordates are known from at least as early as the Cambrian explosion, Hemichordata, which includes the acorn worms, has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but it now is usually treated as a separate phylum. The Hemichordata, along with the Echinodermata, form the Ambulacraria, the Chordata and Ambulacraria form the superphylum Deuterostomia, composed of the deuterostomes.

Attempts to work out the relationships of the chordates have produced several hypotheses. All of the earliest chordate fossils have found in the Early Cambrian Chengjiang fauna.

Because the fossil record of early chordates is poor, only molecular phylogenetics offers a prospect of dating their emergence.

However, the use of molecular phylogenetics for dating evolutionary transitions is controversial and it has also proved difficult to produce a detailed classification within the living chordates. Attempts to produce family trees shows that many of the traditional classes are paraphyletic.

While this has been known since the 19th century, an insistence on only monophyletic taxa has resulted in vertebrate classification being in a state of flux. Although the name Chordata is attributed to William Bateson, it was already in prevalent use byernst Haeckel described a taxon comprising tunicates, cephalochordates, and vertebrates in Though he used the German vernacular form, it is allowed under the ICZN code because of its subsequent latinization, among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, and in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail.

In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the pharynx is the part of the throat immediately behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, a muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. This is a groove in the wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus and it also stores iodine, and may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland 4.

They are ubiquitous throughout freshwater and marine environments from the sea to the highest mountain streams.

damselfish pomacentrus amboinensis: Topics by

Extant species can range in size from Paedocypris, at 8 mm, to the ocean sunfish, at 2, kg. Ray-finned fishes occur in variant forms. The main features of a typical ray-finned fish are shown in the diagram at the left. In nearly all ray-finned fish, the sexes are separate, development then proceeds with a free-swimming larval stage. However other patterns of ontogeny exist, with one of the commonest being sequential hermaphroditism, in most cases this involves protogyny, fish starting life as females and converting to males at some stage, triggered by some internal or external factor.

This may be advantageous as females become less prolific as they age while male fecundity increases with age, protandry, where a fish converts from male to female, is much less common than protogyny. Most families use external rather than internal fertilization, of the oviparous teleosts, most do not provide parental care. There are a few examples of fish that self-fertilise, the mangrove rivulus is an amphibious, simultaneous hermaphrodite, producing both eggs and spawn and having internal fertilisation.

This mode of reproduction may be related to the habit of spending long periods out of water in the mangrove forests it inhabits. This maintains genetic variability in a species that is otherwise highly inbred, the earliest known fossil actinopterygiian is Andreolepis hedei, dating back million years.

Remains have been found in Russia, Sweden, and Estonia, actinopterygians are divided into the subclasses Chondrostei and Neopterygii. The cladogram shows the groups of actinopterygians and their relationship to the terrestrial vertebrates that evolved from a related group of fish 5. The island is composed of a series of narrow islets 6 mi long, the three main islets, East, Middle and West Anacapa, are collectively known as The Anacapas by some authors. All three islets have precipitous cliffs, dropping off steeply into the sea, Anacapa is the smallest of the northern islands of the Channel Islands archipelago, and is within the Channel Islands National Park.

Along with Santa Barbara Island, Anacapa was formed by volcanic eruptions between 19 and 15 million years ago, lava from these eruptions can be found across the region, and in depths of up to 10, feet.

The rocks that make up Anacapa are composed of lava, breccias, volcanic ash, erosion has heavily weathered the lava formations of Anacapa, and wave action caused the island to split into three islets in recent prehistoric times.

The islets display a variety of erosional features including sea arches, sea caves, stacks, wave-cut platforms, surge channels. West Anacapa is the largest and highest islet, rising to an altitude of ft at Vela Peak, East and Middle Anacapa have fairly level areas at their tops. Middle Island reaches an altitude of ft and East Island is ft at its highest point, all three islands total acres, or about 1.

East Islands most notable feature is Arch Rock, a foot -high natural bridge. Great white sharks, feeding on pinnipeds, are found in the waters of the Channel Islands, the island has a somewhat diverse flora, including around native plants, including 16 endemics plus many introduced species.

Anacapa has around 69 species of birds, the islands steep lava rock cliffs incorporate numerous caves and crevices that are particularly important for the increasingly rare seabird Scrippss murrelet.

The cliffs are also an important location for the ashy storm-petrel, the largest breeding colony of the California brown pelican in the United States, and one of the only two in California, also occurs on Anacapa Island. This is where the brown pelican has been able to recover so dramatically from near extinction in the s, the islets of Anacapa also host the largest breeding colony of western gulls in the world. Western gulls begin their efforts at the end of April.

  • Damselfish 'garden' algae

Fluffy chicks hatch in May and June and fly away from the nests in July, the only native land mammal on the island is a unique subspecies of deer mouse which occurs on all three islets, but nowhere else.

Anacapa has two native reptiles, a form of the interesting and attractive side-blotched lizard, and the less-common California alligator lizard. There is one amphibian, the Channel Islands slender salamander, marine mammals and other marine life abound on Anacapa.

Mutualism of the month: A farming fish — Feed the data monster

The main trunk grows up to 5 in thick and often resembles a small tree, during its blooming season, March to May, it bursts forth with a mass of showy, bright yellow flowers and green leaves 6. The bay is south of the cities of San Francisco.

Spotted Salamanders breed almost exclusively in shallow, fish-free bodies of water — especially vernal pools, but also ponds, roadside ditches, and even tire tracks.

These pools are often low in dissolved oxygen. Therein lies the key to this story. Scientists have understood for more than years that Spotted Salamanders have a mutualistic relationship with algae. Mark Chao It was long assumed that the algae reside only in the jelly of the egg capsules, or in the surrounding water.

But ina team led by Ryan Kerney discovered that the algae actually also live inside the cells of the salamander embryos and early-stage larvae. This is the first documented case of algae inhabiting the cells of any vertebrate.

Algae had previously been known to inhabit the cells of many single-celled organisms and certain marine invertebrates, including sponges, corals, and sea anemones. The predominant understanding with vertebrates, however, was that their more advanced immune systems destroy any foreign body entering their cells.

The algae become noticeable inside the salamander embryos just as cells begin to organize into specific tissues, particularly the nervous system.

Before and after this stage, algae are much less abundant inside the cells. This explains in part why the phenomenon took so long to discover — scientists were not examining the salamander cells at just the right moment in their development. Furthermore, the algae are very difficult to see using traditional light microscopes; only the use of fluorescent and electron microscopes enabled Kerney to detect algae in the salamander cells.

This remarkable discovery has opened much scientific inquiry into related issues — including the fundamental question of how the algae get inside the cells.