Greek Mythology Gods Olympians
Zeus, the king of the gods of Mount Olympus, had many relationships but it was his such as Methys (Athena's mother), Leto (mother of Apollo and Artemis) and . Greek god, Relationship, Role, Attribute, Roman Counterpart. Zeus Athena, daughter of Zeus, but not of Hera. Sprung from the Artemis, daugher of Zeus and Leto; sister of Apollo. lunar light, hunting, childbirth, bow, arrows, dogs, Diana. In one version of the story of Athena's birth, Zeus swallowed the goddess of deep Artemis was twin sister to Apollo, born of the goddess Leto.
Scholars examining the remains of Minoan culture have wondered whether it was a matriarchal society. There is no certainty to this conclusion, but for the historical period of Greek culture extending from at least the eighth century B.
With the supremacy of Zeus and the other Olympian gods established, Gaea's position is eclipsed. Demeter, the sister of Zeus, incorporates many of the aspects of the Great Goddess, while the different functions of Gaea are divided among goddesses. Under the Olympian Gods, earth and heaven are split eternally. In myth heroes and gods are created to dominate and subjugate the female and natural forces over and over again in various forms, the most common of them being gigantic snakes and serpent monsters.
The chthonic identity of the Great Goddess becomes associated with powers of darkness, chaos, and death that need to be subdued by the Olympian gods. What had been cyclical with the Great Goddess becomes cut so that instead of being associated with the cycle of life, death, and regeneration, she becomes identified with the negative functions.
Metope from the Temple at Selinus c. Pegasus, the winged horse that sprang from the severed neck, is being held by Medusa.
Perseus gave the head of Medusa to Athena who mounted it on her breastplate, the gorgoneion. A comparison of one of the large number of representations of the story of Perseus Medusa from Archaic Greek art to the Minoan Snake Goddess illustrates the profound change that occurred with the supremacy of the Olympian Gods.
A striking aspect of the Snake Goddess is her frontality combined with her hypnotic stare. The power of this stare was probably intended to strike the original viewers with intense religious feelings of of terror and awe.
This expression transcends categories of good and evil. On the other hand, it was the sight of the "terrible" visage of Medusa that would turn men into stone. The powerful gaze in the Minoan work becomes entirely negative and demonized and something to be overcome in the figure of Medusa. Perseus, the son of Zeus and the mortal Danae, slays Medusa with his sword, and thus he destroys the terrifying chthonic powers of the female for more on Medusa see the paper by Alicia Le Van.
- The Olympians
- Athena’s Relationship with Other Gods and Goddesses
The following excerpt from Bullfinch's Mythology illustrates how the demonization of Medusa persists into our modern imagination: Medusa was a terrible monster who had laid waste to the country. She was once a beautiful maiden whose hair was her chief glory, but as she dared to vie in beauty with Athena, the goddess deprived her of her charms and changed her beautiful ringlets into hissing serpents.
She became a cruel monster of so frightening an aspect that no living thing could behold her without being turned into stone.
All around the cavern where she dwelt might be seen the stony figures of men and animals which had chanced to catch a glimpse of her and had been petrified with the sight. A scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. Most stories depict Artemis as born first, becoming her mother's midwife upon the birth of her brother Apollo.
Childhood The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth. The Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl, who, having been thrashed by Heraclimbs weeping into the lap of Zeus.
Artemis, while sitting on the knee of her father, Zeus, asked him to grant her several wishes: Her symbols included the golden bow and arrow, the hunting dog, the stag, and the moon. Callimachus tells  how Artemis spent her girlhood seeking out the things that she would need to be a huntress, how she obtained her bow and arrows from the isle of Liparawhere Hephaestus and the Cyclops worked. Oceanus' daughters were filled with fear, but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow and arrows.
Callimachus then tells how Artemis visited Panthe god of the forest, who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. She then captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot. Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and then at wild beasts.
Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by Gaia. The river god Alpheus was in love with Artemis, but as he realizes that he can do nothing to win her heart, he decides to capture her. Artemis, who is with her companions at Letrenoi, goes to Alpheus, but, suspicious of his motives, she covers her face with mud so that the river god does not recognize her. In another story, Alphaeus tries to rape Artemis' attendant Arethusa.
Athena (Minerva) and Artemis (Diana)
Artemis pities Arethusa and saves her by transforming Arethusa into a spring in Artemis' temple, Artemis Alphaea in Letrini, where the goddess and her attendant drink. Bouphagos, the son of the Titan Iapetus, sees Artemis and thinks about raping her. Reading his sinful thoughts, Artemis strikes him at Mount Pholoe. Siproites is a boy, who, either because he accidentally sees Artemis bathing or because he attempts to rape her, is turned into a girl by the goddess.
Actaeon Multiple versions of the Actaeon myth survive, though many are fragmentary. The details vary but at the core, they involve a great hunter, Actaeon who Artemis turns into a stag for a transgression and who is then killed by hunting dogs.
Sometimes they are Artemis' hounds. Literary and Iconographic Studies, the most likely original version of the myth is that Actaeon was the hunting companion of the goddess who, seeing her naked in her sacred spring, attempts to force himself on her. For this hubris, he is turned into a stag and devoured by his own hounds. However, in some surviving versions, Actaeon is a stranger who happens upon her.
According to the Latin version of the story told by the Roman Ovid  having accidentally seen Artemis Diana on Mount Cithaeron while she was bathing, he was changed by her into a stag, and pursued and killed by his fifty hounds. In some versions of the story of AdonisArtemis sent a wild boar to kill Adonis as punishment for his hubristic boast that he was a better hunter than her. In other versions, Artemis killed Adonis for revenge.
In later myths, Adonis had been related as a favorite of Aphroditeand Aphrodite was responsible for the death of Hippolytuswho had been a favorite of Artemis.
In yet another version, Adonis was not killed by Artemis, but by Ares, as punishment for being with Aphrodite. Orion Orion was Artemis' hunting companion. In some versions, he is killed by Artemis, while in others he is killed by a scorpion sent by Gaia. In some versions, Orion tries to seduce Opis,  one of Artemis' followers, and she kills him.
In a version by Aratus Orion takes hold of Artemis' robe and she kills him in self-defense. In yet another version, Apollo sends the scorpion.
According to Hyginus  Artemis once loved Orion in spite of the late source, this version appears to be a rare remnant of her as the pre-Olympian goddess, who took consorts, as Eos didbut was tricked into killing him by her brother Apollo, who was "protective" of his sister's maidenhood.
They were aggressive, great hunters, and could not be killed unless they killed each other. The growth of the Aloadae never stopped, and they boasted that as soon as they could reach heaven, they would kidnap Artemis and Hera and take them as wives. The gods were afraid of them, except for Artemis who captured a fine deer or in another version of the story, she changed herself into a doe and jumped out between them.
The Aloadae threw their spears and so mistakenly killed each other. As a companion of Artemis, she took a vow of chastity. Zeus appeared to her disguised as Artemis, or in some stories Apollo gained her confidence and took advantage of her or, according to Ovidraped her. As a result of this encounter, she conceived a son, Arcas. Enraged, Hera or Artemis some accounts say both changed her into a bear.
Arcas almost killed the bear, but Zeus stopped him just in time.Athena: The Story of the Birth of the Goddess of Wisdom - Greek Mythology Ep.07 - See U in History
Out of pity, Zeus placed Callisto the bear into the heavens, thus the origin of Callisto the Bear as a constellation. Some stories say that he placed both Arcas and Callisto into the heavens as bears, forming the Ursa Minor and Ursa Major constellations.
Iphigenia and the Taurian Artemis Artemis punished Agamemnon after he killed a sacred stag in a sacred grove and boasted that he was a better hunter than the goddess. The seer Calchas advised Agamemnon that the only way to appease Artemis was to sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia. Artemis then snatched Iphigenia from the altar and substituted a deer.
Various myths have been told about what happened after Artemis took her. Either she was brought to Tauros and led the priests there or became Artemis' immortal companion. When Artemis and Apollo heard this impiety, Apollo killed her sons as they practiced athletics, and Artemis shot her daughters, who died instantly without a sound.
Apollo and Artemis used poisoned arrows to kill them, though according to some versions two of the Niobids were spared, one boy and one girl. Amphion, at the sight of his dead sons, killed himself. A devastated Niobe and her remaining children were turned to stone by Artemis as they wept. The gods themselves entombed them.